February Contents: Resilience matters in uncertain times.....Keeping soil covered and protected from the weather is still important.....My General advice on Seed Sowing....
Seed Sowing in Modules....The importance of using a good peat-free seed compost......I want to talk a bit about how I sow my seed.....Improving Soil for Planting - especially in New Gardens.....General February advice.....My 'Ad-Free' Blog Policy
Lush, fast-growing mixed Oriental salads in a large pot
My 'stepladder garden' beside the recycled skip bag raised beds
Resilience matters in uncertain times.
It's good to see now that a lot more people than ever are interested in organic gardening and growing some of their own food without harming nature. Many more people are also thinking about buying organic food, for both environmental and health reasons. That's something I've been trying to help promote for over 40 years now, since I first became aware of how damaging chemicals can be not just for our health but also that of the rest of nature and the whole planet. That's why I started organic gardening - and then a few years later became a commercial organic grower. Even if you only have a tiny garden or perhaps no garden at all - it's always possible to find ways to grow some healthy organic food for yourself - even if one often has to be a little inventive! My stepladder garden, recycled skip bags or containers can even fit on an average-sized path. You don't need to use masses of expensive compost either - filling up the bottom of large containers with some general garden rubbish, twiggy prunings and other carbon-rich material such as cardboard or newspaper, and adding a bit of soil provides extra carbon which encourages soil microbes and fungi to multiply and make humus - producing healthier, more resilient plants.
Container gardening is a bit easier on the back too - much less bending! I found lots of ways to grow things when I only had a tiny garden years ago, because I needed to grow as much healthy organic food as possible for my family - which was virtually impossible to buy back then. I soon realised that even if I didn't have a lot of ground space - I could always grow upwards! Even though I now have all the space I could possibly want - too much in fact - I'm still experimenting with lots of different methods because I enjoy it! It also makes me feel just that bit more resilient and a little less insecure too - knowing that having a great selection of vegetables and lovely organic eggs from our hens as well - we could almost survive a siege here! With the uncertain times we're currently living in - that's a very good feeling. The recent shortages of imported vegetables due to the unseasonably cold weather in Southern Europe has more than amply shown just how valuable growing even a very small bit of your own food can be!
Keeping soil covered and protected from the weather is still important
At the moment, soil is still saturated outside in most places - either having been snow covered or even flooded, that it's impossible to touch any vegetable beds, whether raised or not, without ruining the soil structure, apart from the other reasons below. Nothing likes growing in a compacted soil except the odd weed! As a consequence - all the gardening action here is taking place on the propagating bench in the polytunnel - where there's lots of things which were germinated on the back of the range in the kitchen and are now growing on, to be planted outside or in the tunnel later.
On the bench I have two cheap Lidl cold frames sitting on a roll-out heated mat - which is a bit like an electric blanket. It keeps things at a 'just warm enough' 50 degF. The mat sits on a recycled door supported by trestles. To cover then at night I roll out double fleece and a large piece of recycled bubble wrap. So as you can see - it's not very hi-tech but it's very effective! It will be at least another month before I can touch my raised beds as the garden's been flooded for most of the winter despite being on a slope! Anywhere with no current crop is securely covered to stop weeds growing so they'll be weed free, warming up, drying out and ready when I need them. It's amazing how quickly ground will dry out once the early March winds get to work, particularly in a raised bed! Soil should always be covered with something - either a crop, a green manure or something waterproof and light excluding like black polythene if you're trying to keep weeds down and be ready for sowing or planting an early crop.
If you leave soil bare for long you risk causing loss of nutrients, pollution, carbon loss, soil erosion and degradation, and also loss of vital soil life. The old-fashioned way of leaving soil uncovered for weeks in winter, for frost to break it down to a fine tilth, has now been scientifically proven to be extremely harmful both to soil health and to the wider environment. Of course, in times past, there was a lot more carbon in the soil, which would have held onto nutrients and prevented erosion. The advent of synthetic chemical fertilisers changed all that, gradually depleting carbon and adversely affecting the structure and life in the soil.
Nature doesn't do bare soil - except in deserts - and you know what grows in deserts! You can get the same lovely 'tilth' on the soil surface as frost does by putting a light dressing of compost on vacant beds before the winter, covering with polythene and just leaving all the soil life and worms to do the rest of the work! Believe me it works every time. Soil life thrives on being usefully occupied and well fed - just like the rest of us! Piling manure or compost onto empty beds and then leaving them open to winter weather is not just incredibly wasteful of precious nutrients, but also extremely selfish when you think about the amount of pollution it causes.
My General advice on Seed Sowing (more details in Polytunnel and Greenhouse diary)
If you're impatient to get an early start, you can steal a march on spring and sow a few early seeds now if you have a warm light enough windowsill indoors, or much better still a heated propagator in a greenhouse or polytunnel where the light will be better. You can sow your seeds now in pots or modules for planting outside later on - there's a list on the "What you can sow" page. Even if the 'gardening itch' hasn't got to you yet this year and you don't want to start quite this early - then it's a good idea to have everything ready to go when you do. I love sowing seeds - it's such a hopeful and positive thing to do - it's an investment in the future, short or long term, that pays off in abundance. A great many of the things that need to be sown in the next few weeks we'll be eating this time next year.
This is the start of the most important time of year for seed sowing - and the same advice applies whether you only have a cold frame or just a warm windowsill. At the moment the soil is saturated everywhere - far too cold and wet to attempt to sow anything outdoors - and even by the end of the month I doubt if it will be much better unless the weather improves a lot. There's no point wasting expensive seed by sowing it into cold wet ground. It's not really until early March that any sun is strong enough to even begin to warm the soil at all for sowing - and when it is you'll begin to see weed seeds germinating, which is always the best guide. If the soil's warm enough for them - then it's plenty warm enough for some of the the hardier crops to germinate. I sow nearly all my crops in modules now though - as that allows me to get ahead whatever the weather, which means I can plan better, and it helps to make the most of valuable growing space. Obviously the most important thing to do is always adapt any guidelines to suit your own local climate and soil. That can vary hugely depending on exactly where in the country you live - and often even in individual gardens in the same area. For instance - early spring can arrive in the very north of Ireland up to three weeks later than in the warmer south - and the same goes for the UK. Even within a few miles it can vary surprisingly. Where I live now - 400 feet above sea level on a south west facing slope in the teeth of the prevailing SW wind - the season is at least ten days later than where I lived 35 years ago - down near the sea only 9 miles away.
Sowing most things in modules all year roundwastes far less seed and I know I can be more sure of the results! The only exception to this would be root crops like parsnips or carrots - which are really much easier to sow direct in the ground. I only sow these into my recycled 'loo roll middle' modules if I want to make a really early start - or if their allotted space isn't free yet. As I mention later - doing this really makes the best use of your space, as the minute you have a crop cleared - you have another ready and waiting to be planted. By sowing in modules you're not spending time waiting for seed to germinate in ground which early in the year may be far too wet and cold. Carrots and parsnips like quite a warm seedbed and can be very slow and even rot if the ground is too cold. They can also take up to three weeks to appear and with carrots - the tiny early seed leaves are so fine that they're quite difficult to see - so often slugs will have eaten them before you've even noticed they were actually germinating! If you're planning to sow any crops early outside and their planned space is free at the moment - then it's a good idea to cover it with some black polythene now (it should be covered anyway if you've been following my advice!) Then you can uncover it every so often and clear up any slugs which are lurking around just underneath and get ahead of them too! You'll be amazed how many you'll find hiding under there - they won't bother going underground if they can hide in the dark somewhere damp and snug and they think they're out of sight!
If you leave soil uncovered, as some people advocate - the slugs also just hide underground or around edges of beds. They've evolved to hide from hungry birds and hedgehogs - not hungry gardeners! So be clever and outsmart them - it's always a good idea to trap and dispose of as many slugs as possible before you actually start the growing season - that gets you well ahead ahead of the game! Please don't be lazy and thoughtlessly use slug pellets - they kill all slug-eating wildlife too and traces of the poisonous metaldehyde they contain are increasingly being found in our drinking water as well! If you have ducks they're the very best slug hunters of the lot - they seem to have slug radar in the tips of their beaks - and they'll even eat the really big Spanish ones like rubber tyres which hens won't eat. But beware - as ducks are also extremely fond of anything edible, luscious and green - so don't let them near any lettuces etc. Also be careful if your soil is a heavy clay as they'll pack it down with their webbed feet - causing compaction, 'souring' and acidification - so don't leave them on any patch of ground for too long. After you've sown crops - a strip of black polythene or a piece of slate at various points along the bed will give any remaining slugs a place to hide - so that you can then go along every so often, scoop them off and dispose of them - or cut them up with sharp scissors and leave them for wildlife to enjoy! When you've got rid of most of the slugs, then you can put clear polythene on to the bed. This will allow the soil underneath to warm up so that it's all ready. If you see any weed seeds germinating at this point - a flame weeder can be very useful for burning off any tiny seedlings to make what's known as a 'stale seedbed' - which is perfectly clean on the surface and ideal for carrots and other small seeds.(If you're of a nasty frame of mind - a flame weeder's also great for barbecueing slugs!) Remember - weedkillers aren't just toxic - they don't actually kill weed seeds!
Seed Sowing in Modules
(This applies to all vegetables, herbs and flowers, whether they're for planting outside later, or for under cover - whatever the time of year.)
It may seem a bit fiddly sowing things into modules like plug trays, pots, or seed trays, but it's what I call my 'guaranteed one-step method to perfect plants'! This method of sowing means you don't have to handle them again until you actually plant them out. Seed germination is far more reliable in the better conditions. I do most of my sowing into modules all year round now. It means I'm not waiting for a patch to be free before I can sow seeds - and I can have something ready to go straight into the ground the minute any crop is cleared - that way I get loads more veg. out of my space. In essence what I'm doing is continuously overlapping crops. By not taking up ground just waiting for seeds to germinate - over the course of a year I gain several extra weeks of growing time out of my ground space and I can fit in another quick growing crop. I've been doing this for years since I first started off in a small garden and it's even more valuable if you only have a small space. Module sowing also involves far less handling of the seedlings and avoids the risks of 'pricking out' seedlings from large seed trays - the less you handle them, the less chance there is of wasting seed through possible damage, which can cause setbacks, fungal diseases or even death. The only time when I would sow a few seeds into pots or small seed trays might be when seeds need a much higher temperature for germination - things like aubergines or tomatoes. I otherwise wouldn't have enough space for everything in the small heated propagator - because I grow so many. The other really great thing about module sowing is that I can do all my seed sowing inside on the kitchen table - in the warm! I just keep all the 'doings' neatly on a grow bag tray under the table - then whenever I have five minutes - I just pull it out and sow something! For me, this also means that things are far more likely to get sown at the right time. I don't have to plan to set aside a whole day to do it all at once - making it much easier to fit into a very busy life! Remember - you can catch up on everything else - but if you don't sow the seeds at the right time - there's no catching up on that. Time waits for no man! (or woman!)
Planting out modules when they're ready also means that the plants are already growing strongly, are bigger and as a result better able to withstand the occasional nibble from any slugs or other pests without being completely destroyed. And there's always one or two that escape my early scissor forays! I often get questions from people who think they bought bad seed and it didn't germinate - but usually the reason seeds don't appear is because either the soil was too cold and wet in early spring so they rotted, or they dried out in summer, or slugs ate them as they came up! Sowing into modules avoids all those problems. Bad seed that doesn't germinate at all is thankfully extremely rare. Whatever pot or module you choose to sow in is up to you, there are masses of things which can be recycled for this purpose, and as usual the choice is only limited by one's imagination! The important thing is to make sure they're clean, have good drainage holes in the bottom and that the young plants will come out quite easily, without disturbing the root ball if you gently push them up from the bottom - otherwise you lose the whole point of modules - which is to avoid any disturbance which causes setbacks!
A word on using loo roll middles - I find these brilliant for long rooted things like very early carrots and parsnips as they can be planted out intact as they are - completely avoiding root disturbance - but I don't find them quite as good for other things like lettuce or other leafy crops which have a fine root ball - I think this is because the cardboard rolls are so high in carbon - which needs nitrogen to break down naturally - so it tends to rob this from the surrounding soil or compost as it does so - and also possibly any young plant that is growing in them.
The other thing to remember about using these is that they MUST be planted with the loo roll below soil level - if exposed to the air they'll act like a wick, drying out and shrinking - evaporating moisture from around the young plants with possibly disastrous results! The same goes for using paper pots. I get a lot of questions about this from people who have tried i and had disappointing results - but I've never seen anyone mentioning the danger of this. I know it does take a little extra compost sowing this way, but sowing into modules also means I don't waste expensive seed - which pretty much balances out the small cost of the extra compost used. It also means I have larger plants ready to go without losses to slugs. That again also means that I can plan the use of space much better - planting out neat, attractive-looking rows, instead of perhaps having unsightly gaps! I really love that kind of instant potager gardening. It's very satisfying to stand back and look at the results!
The importance of using a good peat-free seed compost
It makes sense to use a good proprietary organic peat-free seed compost - NOT a multipurpose compost containing peat! A good peat-free seed compost will have been specially formulated to be suitable for tiny seedlings for their first few weeks when their tiny hair-like roots are very sensitive. Many seedlings dislike a high nutrient content in composts - so using one specifically for seed sowing is really important - otherwise too high a nutrient content in the compost could inhibit germination, giving disappointing results. I never found those 'seed & potting' multi-purpose peat composts good for that particular reason when I had no choice but to use them many years ago. They also tend to attract root-eating soil pests too - because all composts containing peat do that! I haven't used them for many years as I only use an organic peat-free compost now.
Peat is only a natural medium for plants which grow in bogs - and it should stay in the bogs where it belongs! Using it is a very selfish choice! It supports enormous biodiversity and also acts a very effective carbon sink. It should not be be dug up for the convenience of thoughtless gardeners who are just looking for the cheapest option - especially when growing your own food actually saves so much money anyway! In terms of damage to the planet and accelerating climate change - using peat certainly isn't a cheap option eventually! Any short term financial gain from using cheap easily available peat is wiped out many times by the loss of important habitat for biodiversity, and also the inevitable flooding caused by reducing the land's water-holding capacity. Bogs act like enormous sponges - capturing rainfall and slowing up huge volumes of water that would otherwise immediately run off the land surface, overwhelming natural drainage systems and flooding not just farmland but also peoples houses and gardens.,
As I've mentioned previously - I use a really good, peat free, certified organic compost. This is available in Ireland from Fruit Hill Farm - (call them for local stockists - getting one bag by post is expensive!). It's also available from White's Agri, at Ballough, Lusk. The compost is produced by Klasmann Deilmann in Germany, from composted organic green waste. It's utterly brilliant and is the very best compost of any sort that I've found in over 40 years of growing. It's also available in the UK, and it's worth investigating if you live there. There are a quite a few other peat-free organic composts available there now too - but I haven't tried them, so can't recommend them. I would always prefer an organic compost - as those containing artificial fertilisers don't produce the most healthy plants in my experience. They are far more likely to attract aphids and other pests as the plant's immune defence systems aren't as healthy. Once you've used the Klasmann - I promise you won't use anything else! (I wish I had shares in it!) .It's the best compost of any sort that I've ever used. Whether you're organic or not - believe me - this compost is worth every cent! Plants really thrive in it - I think possibly because it contains a good range of beneficial bacteria, having been made with organically grown green waste, composted specifically for this purpose. But whichever brand you choose, don't use a potting compost for sowing seeds - it will be far too high in nutrients that inhibit germination and burn the roots of the tiny seedlings as soon as they emerge. They may then be sickly, or possibly even keel over and die! I grow a lot of rare plants - many of which are fussy and the seed expensive. I can't afford to risk wasting seed. These days no one can - so always go for a reliable, good quality seed compost - and choose peat free preferably - if you care about the environment.
In addition - make sure it's this year's freshly delivered batch of compost too! Not old, saturated compost that's been sitting around outside in the garden centre all winter since the previous year! That would be stale, will have lost many of it's nutrients and may well harbour moulds and diseases. I always make sure that I have a couple of spare bags put by in a dry place so that I have plenty for early sowings the following year. Also don't use garden soil for sowing in pots - it's false economy - especially if you're a beginner gardener. It will contain weed seeds and perhaps pests too, and the texture is unlikely to be suitable for sowing small seeds in pots or modules. I know good compost isn't cheap - but actually most bags these days cost no more than two or three packets of seeds and you won't need a huge amount. If you're careful a little will go a very long way, and you'll get far better results. You'll avoid wasting expensive seed and precious time too.
Another point I'd like to mention here is that although some gardeners in the UK don't like using British produced peat composts - some of them don't seem have a problem using Irish extracted peat. I just don't understand that 'NIMBY' attitude, because it's every bit as damaging to the environment and to biodiversity, and releases just as much climate- changing carbon which affects the whole planet. So please have a re-think if that applies to you! I think it's a bit like thoughtlessly throwing away your rubbish out of the car window and ensuring that it becomes someone else's problem!
Remember the piece of advice"Whatever else you don't get time for - always sow the seed - you can catch up on everything else except that". - One of the best pieces of advice I was ever given - well worth remembering - and another good reason for sowing in modules so that you're not delayed by the weather or by waiting for another crop to be finished. This is often something that's really hard to remember in the middle of summer, when you're enjoying an abundance of glorious vegetables! If you don't sow many things in June, July and August - you'll have very little to eat in the winter! Don't spend ages waiting around to get ground perfectly ready either, particularly in a wet year, or you may find it's then too late to sow the seed. Sow the seed first, in modules if necessary, and then catch up with all the other jobs later while your seedlings are growing on nicely somewhere else, until they're big enough for planting.
Here I want to talk a bit about how I sow my seed
(I get a lot of requests from first time gardeners for this information.)
It's stating the obvious to repeat that most seed these days is expensive - a little care will make your seed go a lot further and therefore your money too!My apologies to all you 'old timers' out there like me who know all this stuff - but maybe you may actually do it differently - and there's no harm in reassessing the way we do things occasionally is there? Gardening is an occupation where you never stop learning, that's what makes it so interesting.
1. First fill your modules, pots or whatever with good seed compost, firming it gently but not ramming it down too hard. Then make suitably sized small depressions in the top of each one with the end of a old pencil, biro, or whatever's handy. Seed differs in the depth it prefers to be sown, so consult your seed packet on this one, there isn't enough room here! Generally I find a depression of about 1/2-1cm is suitable for module sowing of most things depending on the size of the seed. A very rough rule of thumb though is to sow at about twice the depth of the seed. As some really fine seed prefers to be sown on the surface and not covered at all - If you're going to sow very fine small seed it's a good idea to water the containers before sowing, to avoid washing tiny seed either too deeply into the compost, or alternatively washing it completely out of the compost later! Some brands of seed composts can be quite difficult to wet if they've become exceptionally dry - so when sowing anything it's probably a idea good to moisten all composts a bit first - and letting any excess drain away.
2. Next, after you've prepared your modules, before you even handle the seed packet make sure your hands are absolutely clean and dry! Don't attempt to open the packet with dirty wet hands from preparing your compost, soil or whatever! Unless you're going to sow all the seed at once, which is unlikely, you need to take care that the atmosphere around the remaining seed in the packet is as dry and clean as possible. Most people with average-sized gardens won't need to sow a whole packet of seed at once - despite what the packet tells you! (obviously they're trying to sell seed!) When you've taken all the seed you need, squeeze as much air out as possible, seal with sellotape, write on the date it was opened, and store somewhere really cool and dry. Most seed except carrot and parsnip will last well for at least a couple of years this way. People always say "but the experts say store them in the fridge" - all I can say is those 'experts' must have nothing else in their fridges - or have dedicated seed fridges! Since when were most household fridges absolutely bone dry? But then perhaps yours is a bit tidier than mine! Frankly - I'd sooner tidy my polytunnel any day than my fridge!
3. When you're opening the packet of seed, make sure that all the seed is shaken down to the bottom first. Then slit it open with a sharp knife or with scissors rather than just tearing off the top - this makes it much easier to do up neatly again afterwards. The seed may also be in a 'stay-fresh' foil packet inside the paper packet, so open that carefully too, then when you've finished, re-seal afterwards in the way described. It always says on the packet "Do not re-seal" - pay no attention whatsoever to that! Seeds will just absorb atmospheric moisture far more easily if you don't re-seal them properly - then you'll have to buy more seed because it won't germinate nearly as well!
4. Tip a very small amount of seed - slightly less than you think you'll need - into the dry palm of your hand or onto a saucer and carefully sow the amount you want into each module. Never put seed back in if you've tipped out too much into your hand, unless your hand is very clean and dry! I sow lettuce, brassicas etc. in two's or three's thinning to the strongest one when the seed leaves (cotyledons) are fully expanded and there's one 'true' leaf just showing, then you can judge which is the strongest, or if any are 'blind'(which can sometimes happen with cabbage family/brassicas in particular) - then pull the others out very gently and carefully. Beetroot or chards can be sown singly - they are multi-seeded - producing several seedlings in a clump from just one lumpy seed, which you don't have to thin too much unless you want to - I never do - I normally leave three chards in a clump! They grow perfectly well as normal - and I'm greedy! Some modern F1 varieties of beetroot are 'mono-seeded' - these are useful if you just want one seed per station and bigger roots eventually - but the seed is usually much more expensive and I don't want massive roots. I prefer medium sized or baby beets to pickle or roast - so I use normal varieties and I leave them in clumps of 3 or 5. They will push each other apart quite happily as they grow and find their own growing space.
I sow my onions in 3's, 5's or 7's according to what size I want them to grow to. The more you sow into the module, and the closer you grow them on, the smaller the onions will obviously be. Three seeds to a module sown in early to mid March will generally give me onions of around 4-5oz - a medium size which I generally find are the most useful for the kitchen. Red Baron onions I sow in 5's as I like smaller whole red onions for roasting. They're planted out later about 20-30cm apart in late March or early April. They will then push each other apart quite happily as they grow, giving you a much bigger, more reliable crop. Early carrots (a small pinch) and parsnips (in 3's) can be sown into loo roll or 1/2 kitchen roll middles and easily planted out carefully using a long trowel later. Peas and beans can be sown in large yogurt pots - as shown on the polytunnel page and here - also 1/2 milk cartons, fruit punnets etc - all with good drainage holes made in them. You can see how I sow mine in the polytunnel diary as well. Some people sow into old half drainpipes but I find they're too shallow, they don't have much root room, then if planting out is delayed by bad weather, as it often is at this time of year, plants may get a setback and won't crop as well as they should later on. The roots can often go along instead of down.The RHS recommends shallow drainpipes with holes drilled into them - but again delays can be a problem and the roots may start coming through the drainage holes - making it harder to slide them out easily and possibly tearing roots off when you try to slide them out.
5.Cover the smaller vegetable seedswithvermiculite, which is available in all good garden centres now in small packs (if it's too much, split it with a friend - it lasts years as it's sterile and you don't need that much). This promotes really good drainage and air circulation around seedlings which is vital and usually avoids nasty 'damping off' diseases, which can otherwise be a big problem with early seedlings in particular (but never in peat-free composts). Sit the seed tray, pots or modules in a tray of water for a few seconds (new cat litter trays are a good size for standard seed trays, and much cheaper than something similar sold in garden centres!) but don't let the modules or trays get saturated. If by mistake they do - then a good tip is to sit them on a folded up newspaper with a bit of kitchen paper on top, which acts like blotting paper to draw out excess moisture - newspaper on it's own doesn't work quite so well. Don't forget that if things are too wet - even if they're warm - they're far more likely to rot. Bigger seeds like peas and beans can be covered with compost and then watered from above initially. I put my early peas and beans onto damp kitchen paper on a covered plate or tray somewhere warm to germinate them first. Usually the back of my range cooker where I can keep an eye on them. This is particularly good for French beans later on in spring - which can be very prone to rotting if sitting in wet compost for too long. I then put the sprouted seeds into a pot in the usual way and cover them with seed compost. I then water them lightly at first, again making sure I don't saturate!
6.Cover the seed tray or modules after sowing by putting in a clear polythene bag, under a sheet of clingfilm or glass to keep them moist and stop them drying out, and put them in a suitably warm place. Check the optimum germination temperature on the seed packet - as not everything likes to be too warm. This particularly applies to lettuces and spinach. Then check every day for germination, and as soon as they appear, uncover them immediately and put them into good light - but not strong sunlight as this could burn them and kill them very quickly. If they're in the house on a windowsill, turn them round a bit every day so all the seedlings get equal light to prevent them getting etiolated (or drawn up and spindly), which weakens them and makes them much more prone to disease. You could also make a light reflector of tin foil fixed to a couple of barbecue skewers at the back of the pot as I used to years ago! At night then bring them into the room before you close the curtains otherwise they could be frost damaged. If they're in a cold frame, greenhouse or tunnel outside, shade them lightly from very bright midday sun - which can be surprisingly strong through glass, even at this time of year. Again, do make sure they're protected from frost at night with fleece suspended over them - not resting on them - or newspaper. Wire hoops are useful for this, also recycled old freezer baskets, a propagator lid or cloches etc.
7. Always water trays of young growing seedlings from underneath when necessary - sitting them in a tray as described above, using clean, ambient temperature water if possible. Watering them from above with a watering can again encourage damping off diseases. I keep clean rainwater in a barrel in the tunnel for watering, which is usually not too cold. Seedlings don't enjoy sitting in a freezing cold bath any more than you do! And they enjoy rainwater best of all. Like all plants, they didn't evolve to appreciate chlorine, or anything else that may be in tap water!
8. After germination, grow on seedlings of tender veg. like tomatoes etc. at a slightly lower temperature but still in a warm light place- where they won't get chilled if it's cold at night. A roll-out heat mat which you can put on a greenhouse bench is convenient for this - or if you're good at DIY - you could make a cheaper large area of gentle bottom warmth by using soil warming cables buried in sand. Be careful that propagators don't overheat, get them set up and going for a few hours before you start sowing your seeds, because just as too little warmth can damage seedlings - so can overheating. It can can seriously damage their cropping potential. From March onwards all small seedlings will need some shade at midday under glass or in a tunnel - fleece also makes a good temporary sun shield. A small max-min thermometer is well worth buying, they're far more useful in the garden than a soil thermometer, and cheaper. As I've already said - you don't need a soil thermometer out in the garden to tell you when the soil outside is warm enough for sowing - all the weed seeds germinating will reliably tell you that!
Improving Soil for Planting - especially in New Gardens
I find the two things people get most screwed-up about are making compost perfectly and having perfect soil. Perfection is actually required in neither! If you're starting off on a new patchlike many people I've spoken to recently - you'll obviously need something to plant your modules into!Be realistic! Soil doesn't need to be a perfect seedbed for just planting into. Also remember that plants want to grow! Given a decent start, they'll often surprise you and grow really well in even the most difficult ground. If you're in despair because your soil is badly compacted and lumpy - perhaps in it's first year or so after builders have left it in a state - then just break it up a bit, and make some 'planting pockets' in it. Put a little potting or garden compost into a planting hole to plant in - just like planting into a pot - but in the ground instead! This makes your compost go much further too! When you've done that, then use organic mulches like grass clippings in between the rows which will gradually break down and be pulled in by worms. Green manures are also useful - they improve soil and keep weeds down as well - killing two birds with one stone. You don't have to pile on tons of manure. It's unnecessary, may be far too high in nitrogen leading to unhealthy growth, can be wasteful of nutrients and could cause pollution, particularly with our current rainfall! It may also emit nitric-oxide - a climate-damaging greenhouse gas! Anyway - in the real world - most back gardeners find well-rotted organic manure hard to obtain. Non-organic manure can contain all sorts of nasty things like animal worm treatments (not good for soil life), weedkillers and straw-shortening chemicals. Non-organic mushroom compost will usually contain the same! These toxic agricultural chemicals can damage your soil, your plants and your health.
The very best way to improve soil is always to grow things in it! I know this sounds like a bit of a contradiction - but as long as you've just broken the soil up a bit and it will drain reasonably well - you'll be amazed just how quickly even virtual subsoil will respond to some TLC! I've proved it! Seaweed meal (ground laminaria seaweed - not calcified seaweed) is really helpful on damaged soil and it works astonishingly fast. You'll find it far more cheaply in agricultural feed merchants than garden centres - 25 euros for a 25 kg. bag. Garden centres charge at least double for it! It's brilliant for encouraging all the microbial life in the soil to multiply quickly. and also encouraging heavy, sticky clay soil to 'flocculate' (or in other words stick together to you and me)! That helps it to drain better. Seaweed meal is even used now on the sides of new motorways to get soil ready for being planted - and I must say I've seen plenty of new gardens that looked like motorways after the builders have left!! Where my new polytunnels are did nine years ago!
To improve really badly damaged or compacted soilI would use a combination of organic mulches and seaweed meal. Then I would grow potatoes in 1/4 of it, maybe peas and beans which aren't too fussy in another 1/4 - planted in pockets as I've said - and then perhaps cover the rest for now or again plant in pockets - perhaps growing something large like courgettes or pumpkins through black polythene with a nice organic mulch underneath, later in the summer, to encourage the worms to help you!. There you have the beginnings of your four-course rotation! And the soil microbial life and the worms will just gradually do the rest! Very deep cultivation isn't good for any the soil life either - it really doesn't appreciate being turned upside down every year just as it's warmed up and got used to a nice bit of fresh air and sunshine - any more than we would! Leave it near the surface - where it all evolved to be. Each kind prefers it's own level - but most live in the top few inches or so. A little bit of light 'scratching around with a fork' doesn't hurt it at all - in fact introducing the extra oxygen can rev all the micro-life up a bit in spring because it does actually need some air. But all that macho, nightmare double-digging stuff just buries it so far down that it takes ages to recover and fight it's way back to the surface again! It also destroys worm burrows which help drainage, and fungal hyphae (or threads) which break down and recycle carbon, releasing nutrients and helping plants to grow. If you keep doing that every year like some people I know do - your soil will never be truly healthy because you're giving all the soil life a very hard time! Obviously you need to break up new soil initially by digging over the surface - and also to loosen any possible compaction of the subsoil by sticking a long fork in and just gently lifting a little to help improve drainage - but don't bring subsoil to the surface by double digging. After that - minimum work for maximum output has always been my preferred method. I like to make life as easy as possible - but I don't call it 'no dig' because it isn't - In reality there is actually no such thing! - It's just an attractive idea that sounds good! Minimal dig is how nature does it - with the occasional scratching around by birds or large foraging animals - like us!
You don't need to worry about expensive soil tests for micro-nutrients! In a new garden or allotment though - always do a soil pH test first. That's really all you need to do - there's no need to over-complicate things. If the pH is right - then plants can help themselves to whatever they need, aided and abetted by their symbiotic microbial friends in the soil! You can buy a small, easy to use test kit complete with instructions from most garden centres or DIY stores now. A soil pH of 6.5-7 is what most vegetables prefer. If you need to raise the pH of your soil, you can adjust if necessary by adding either calcified seaweed - which contains calcium as well as valuable trace elements, ground limestone, or Dolomitic limestone - which contains magnesium. All of these have a much gentler action on the soil than hydrated lime. Lime is best added in the autumn to vacant beds after legumes (peas & beans) - where next years brassica (cabbage family) crops are to grow. Never add lime to potato beds before planting - it can cause potato scab. Potatoes prefer a slightly acidic soil. Never add lime at the same time as manure either - as that can cause a reaction which 'locks up' nutrients so that they become unavailable to plants - this shows in a yellowing of the leaves called 'chlorosis'. This can often be a problem in old gardens, which may have been limed routinely every year without doing a pH test to see if it was actually needed. Calcified seaweed is the only kind of pH-raising agent that I would ever use if necessary just before planting a crop. Tomatoes seem to particularly appreciate it. Whatever type of garden you're starting off with - it's always good to get a rough idea of the soil pH anyway. Once that's right - plants will be able to help themselves to the food they need - helped by the worms and all the other vitally important microbial life in the soil which breaks down nutrients into a form that plants can absorb. Worms and vital soil bacteria don't like acid soils - so getting the pH right is also very important for them too. Out of interest - the acidity is why spaghnum moss from bogs was often used as an antibacterial would dressing during the First World War!
Worms and other soil life are also encouraged by growing green manures, by adding organic matter like compost, and by using organic mulches. Don't be tempted in a new garden to use a glyphosate the so-called 'total' weedkiller to get rid of weeds before you start - there is a huge body of evidence that shows glyphosate actually kills aquatic life like frogs and soil microbial life. So if you use it you would be killing off the things that actually help you, by making nutrients available to plants! It has also been shown to persist in soil and to be taken up by plants growing there afterwards - despite the makers disingenuous claims to the contrary! Quite apart from that - even if you don't care about the environment, or poisoning yourself, your pets, soil and local water supply - glyphosate doesn't actually kill weed seeds! They'll germinate as soon as you cultivate the soil at all! So not only is it a very dangerous chemical - but it's also a hideous and expensive waste of money! If you've got too much ground to cope with then just cultivate a small bit first - and either mow the rest, keep some chickens or other livestock on it, or cover it with some grass clippings, compost or well-rotted manure and then a light-excluding waterproof mulch. That will get the worms working furiously - which hugely improves the condition of the soil and also prevents and kills weeds by excluding light. When you uncover it in a few months or a year - you will be astonished at the transformation! Roundup (glyphosate) won't do that for you - you'll just end up with a dead, lifeless soil - incapable of growing genuinely healthy plants! As I'm always saying - let Nature do the work - it's free - and only too willing to help if you encourage it a bit!
Don't be tempted to use non-organic mushroom compost anywhere you're growing food - it may seem like a nice easy option but it will almost certainly contain very nasty and extremely persistent pesticide residues which I've already mentioned - which can last for many years in the soil. It also has a very high pH - so it can be really bad for low pH plants like Rhododendrons or blueberries causing 'chlorosis', 'locking up' of vital nutrients and stunted yellowing growth. Use mulches of grass clippings or leaf mould instead. And while on the subject of soil - something else I'm always going on about - but it's worth repeating because I see people doing it all the time - in fact I've seen many pictures of people proudly displaying their so-called 'clean' soil on twitter! It hurts me to see them! Leaving bare soil uncovered may well give you a nice surface 'tilth' to sow into and it may look lovely and organised - but it's incredibly thoughtless and also selfish!
I will repeat this again! - PLEASE - Do not leave bare soil uncovered at this time of year! Doing so causes pollution, loss soil and of valuable nutrients and also emission of climate-changing greenhouse gases!
General February advice
If you buy things like rhubarb, asparagus or Seakale roots in those plastic packs in garden centres - pot them up in a nice free draining compost immediately you get them home as they're expensive and may well rot in the packets if you wait until outside conditions are suitable. Then you can plant them out in a few weeks when the soil is warmer.
'Chit' seed potatoes in a cool, frost free, light place if they're for planting direct outside in March. 'Chitting' means getting them to start sprouting shoots. Some varieties like 'Pink Fir Apple' may be reluctant to do this, so if you find it a problem, you can fool them and get round this by putting them in a slightly warmer place, like under the kitchen table, and covering them so that they're in the dark. They'll start to sprout very quickly this way. Then put them back into a light, cool place again so that the shoots don't get too long and brittle. Short stubby shoots will be stronger than long spindly ones - and less vulnerable to damage when you're planting out later straight into soil as opposed to compost. I start off all mine in pots now so length of shoot doesn't matter, and then I plant them out like herbaceous plants a bit later in spring. This way they start into growth far quicker and I get bigger crops before any blight strikes - which these days is getting earlier. This also means I can grow for the very best flavour - I don't like the taste of any of the so-called blight-resistant ones. We don't eat potatoes every day here, so quality rather than quantity is what I aim for.
You can plant Jerusalem artichoke tubers outside now if the soil's not too sticky - or again alternatively into pots to plant out later. They're a really useful winter vegetable that are dead easy to grow anywhere, so they're great for breaking up rough ground like you might have on a new allotment. They're also very nutritious - and extremely good for the immune system as they contain something called Inulin - a pre-biotic that can really rev up the good bacteria in the gut - with occasionally somewhat anti-social results! As they're tall they also make a very good windbreak - ironic that! (I'll leave you to work that one out!!). In a mild autumn they also have very pretty yellow flowers, which are good for picking, being a member of the sunflower family. 'Fuseau' is a good, less knobbly variety, very widely available now. They're delicious as a Dauphinoise, raw in a salad, oven roasted, used like water chestnuts in a Chinese stir fry, or made into soup. They're also almost impossible to lose - so be careful where you plant them, you'll have them there forever, unless you have a few pigs to root them up! They love them!
(As an aside I couldn't believe it recently when I saw a gardening writer described as 'organic' actually recommending the use of glyphosate to get rid of Jerusalem artichokes! And another 'organic expert' who had 'GrowSure' seed which is pre-treated with fungicide among his seed packets - in a box pictured in a gardening magazine! I wouldn't dream of using those! No wonder people are confused about what is allowed in organic growing!)
As I mentioned in the sowing details - you can also still plant 'spring planting' varieties of garlic too. Or if the soil is too wet - just pop them into some modules to root or pot them up into small pots for future planting.
My 'Ad-Free' Blog Policy
This isn't a money-making site, I don't have any product to sell and all the information in it is freely given, in the hope that it will be useful to readers. It's the sort of advice that I would have very much liked to have been able to find, when I was just beginning my gardening 40 years ago.
I also don't have any ads. or so-called 'editorial pieces' (just basically ads in another form!) from other sources on my website. I have been asked many times to take them in return for a fee - even from companies whose ethos I might generally approve of - but I always refuse. This is not meant in any way as a criticism of those people who do accept them. That is their choice and we all have to make a living - but I prefer to have the freedom to speak my mind frankly and to voice my own opinions without the possibility of being influenced by what an advertiser or potential sponsor may think.
As a result my blog may look a little old-fashioned compared to some - but fancy websites with bells and whistles cost money. Many people have told me that they actually prefer it this way though, and that it comes as a nice change! The only concession I have made to modernity was to join Twitter a couple of years ago, which a lot of people had asked me to do over the last few years - so I finally relented! I have to say it's fascinating - though it can be time-consuming!
If you're a new reader you may have noticed that I can be pretty outspoken at times too - but I do my research! If I recommend any product then you can be assured that it's always something that I've found useful myself - usually over several years. I don't accept 'freebies' or discounts of any sort in order to promote other people's products either - so please don't send me any - or you'll be disappointed!
Another reason I don't accept ads. is that I personally find them intensely annoying popping up all over the place, often totally unrelated to the content of the site. I also hate to read something that may look interesting and then find out halfway through that actually it's actually promoting a product! It's impossible to know then whether what you're reading is actually an honest and impartial opinion, so I'm afraid I tend to be a little cynical about that and usually leave those sites immediately! Perhaps I'm a little old-fashioned - but to me, my integrity is worth far more than money.
I think that useful information garnered from long experience, and truly objective, honest opinion are important. That is what I try to give readers of my blog and I hope you will continue to enjoy it. I want to say a big thank you to all the people who have emailed or tweeted on Twitter to thank me for my advice! I'm sorry if I don't always have the time to answer you all individually - but it does makes all the work really worthwhile. Your gratitude is so very much appreciated - and is great motivation to do even better! Thank you for paying me the great compliment of reading it!
(P.S.I really enjoy sharing my original ideas and 40 years experience of growing and cooking my own organic food with you. It's most satisfying and naturally also very complimentary if others find "inspiration" in my work......But if you do happen to copy any of my material, or repeat it in any way online - I would appreciate it very much if you would please mention that it originally came from me, as it's the result of many years of hard work. Thank you.)
February contents: The 'Darling Buds' of February! The beginning of February marks the mid-point of winter....Fruit trees suitable for polytunnel growing.....Another reminder to order seeds now - if you want a tunnel full of healthy veg next winter!....So how to afford the 'luxury' of protected polytunnel cropping?..... Will you have 'Extra early potatoes' for Easter?.....Pollination for peaches, nectarines and apricots in the tunnel.... Attracting bees and other beneficial insects to help.....Pesticides or pollinators? - It's up to us!.....
Time to start sowing some early seeds in modules.....Winter watering.....Waking up your soil friends after the winter.....Time to start sowing some early seeds in modules.....What are 'Blind seedlings' that don't develop?.....Sowing early peas and broad beans in pots..... Early spring has already arrived in the tunnel - and I couldn't possibly garden without one now!
Apricot buds just bursting into flower in late February
Peach buds about to burst in the polytunnel in late February
The 'Darling Buds' of February!
Spring is fast approaching to cheer us all up - isn't it exciting?I can already see all of Nature responding to the lengthening days. Already weed seeds are germinating in the tunnel soil. Plants still want to grow and seeds want to sprout! Buds are beginning to move already everywhere. Every day more of the early spring bulbs are beginning to peep out of the chilly wet ground and the robin's loud singing starts at least ten minutes earlier each week. But winter isn't done with us quite yet - so take care - and don't be fooled into thinking Spring's arrived just yet! Don't be too impatient to start planting stuff outside though, however tempting it may be on the milder days. There's a lot we can get on with indoors - enjoying the anticipation before the work becomes too urgent!
Some people get their buzz from gambling - or finding the latest designer handbag on Ebay! I'm different - I get mine from the dry rattling sound of those large padded brown envelopes the postman brings! Those sounds are so full of the promise of new and exciting plants to grow - wonderful new flavours and satisfying meals to look forward to. They always bring a smile to my face!
Despite the cold nights things are already starting to put on a surprising amount of growth. Joy Larkcom's beautiful Chinese brassica, Orychophragmus Violaceus (bit of a mouthful!), which the Chinese call the 'February Orchid' (much nicer), is living up to it's name and will be opening it's first flowers any day. Seeing it in Joy's Co. Cork greenhouse a few years ago completely stopped me in my tracks - it was absolutely stunning in early March! I just had to have it - and she was kind enough to give me some seed. It has quite large flowers for a brassica, that lovely soft lilac-pink colour of sweet rocket. Sadly no scent though - but nevertheless the bees love it and it's a firm favourite with endangered orange tip butterflies, as this photograph from spring 2011 shows. So it deserves a place in any garden just for that reason. It would certainly be worthy of a place in any flower border. I've picked lots of leaves over the winter, and they're pleasant tasting in a salad, with a slightly 'cucumbery/cressy' flavour - not very strong and have quite an interesting texture. The flowers are really pretty in a salad too, again they have a slightly 'cress-y' taste but they look so lovely it's almost a shame to eat them. I'll be saving seed again this year as it's very hard to obtain and I find it germinates best from fresh seed - but I do know that currently Brown Envelope Seeds in Cork have them.
The beginning of February marks the mid-point of winter - half-way between the shortest day and the spring equinox.
It's also the time when the ancient Celtic calendar marked the Festival of Imbolc- or the 'Feast of Lights' - which celebrated the returning of light to the earth and the beginning of the end of winter. An important day, this pagan celebration of light - which was seen as being both healing and life-giving. In Celtic times people rejoiced to see the sun returning just as we do today - but they understood how dependent they were on nature - an awareness that many of us seem to have lost now. They knew how vital the sun was to their lives and just how much they depended on those primitive seeds they had harvested so painstakingly the previous autumn and guarded so carefully all winter. They were totally in tune with the rhythm of the seasons and the forces of nature. Those of us today who are gardeners or nature lovers still feel the rise of that age-old visceral thrill of anticipation and experience the same sense of celebration at the anticipation of longer days and delights to come. It truly connects us to our roots.
The 2nd of February is Candlemas Day - "If Candlemas Day be fair and bright - winter will have another flight". Very sage old country lore. So be warned - don't put all that fleece away just yet - we could still get some bitter weather or even snow! The 2nd of February is also 'Groundhog Day' in the USA - when the groundhog traditionally peeps out - but if he can see his own shadow - he reckons it's going to be cold for a few more weeks yet. So he pops back into his snug winter quarters for some more 'duvet' time until the weather warms up - wise creature! My two late 'rescue' dogs - Flotsam and Jetsam - always did exactly the opposite. Immediately even the weakest rays of sun showed they would rush outside and arrange themselves to maximum effect against a south facing wall. Just like eager tourists dashing for the sunbeds - in order to catch every available scrap of precious sunlight! Our two new rescue pups do just the same! They love to be outside all day if the weather's fine - occasionally tearing around playing and then flopping down onto their bale again! I hate to think of all the poor creatures that are left on their own all day, shut in up houses away from sunlight. All creatures have a desperate need for light and an innate sense of just how important the sun is. This particular animal (me!) makes a point of spending some time every day outside in the light, no matter how busy I am in the house. The sun feels surprisingly warm on one's face sitting in the polytunnel even at this time of year - and it's so welcome - but I find I can rarely sit for very long as there's always some needy job that catches my eye!
I'm currently having to sit a bit more - having only very recently had a minor procedure which unfortunately required a general anaesthetic - something which I react rather badly to.I then got the nasty flu bug that's doing the rounds - I caught it in the hospital I think! Anyway - despite being a bit chilly - it was wonderful yesterday to be able to go outside for the first time in a week, breathe fresh air and have a brief sit in the polytunnel, while listening to the beautiful sounds of a thrush singing up in the hedge behind the tunnel. Amid life's many stresses and troubles - I try never to forget how very lucky I am to be able to do that - it reminds me of why I do what I do. Thirty-five years ago I vividly remember returning home from hospital after spinal surgery. I had been bluntly warned beforehand by my brilliant neurosurgeon, Prof. Jack Phillips, that after my surgery I could wake up better, perhaps the same and no better, might possibly be paralysed from the neck down - or that there was even the slight possibility that I might not wake up at all! I asked for the true prognosis so I got it - with two young children I needed to know! My philosophy has always been to hope for the best - but prepare for the worst just in case! Anyway, after 18 months of severe pain including some months a couple of years previously being unable to walk (which also included viral meningitis!) - to then be able to walk to my back door and breathe fresh air was just like being re-born! It sounds funny I know - but I'm so grateful for having gone through that experience. It made me determined to make the very best use I possibly could of every minute of every day for the rest of my life. Some people got a bit cross with me on Twitter when I said that many humans are very dissatisfied folk - always wanting it to be summer and that they should perhaps value every day - even those in winter. My philosophy is to be grateful for every single day - whatever time of year it is - the alternative is a helluva lot worse when you think you might possibly be facing it believe me!
I truly believe that the healthy organic diet, which we'd already been living on since my severely allergic, by then 7 year old, daughter was born, really helped to repair my health. That and my precious kefir - which you can read my article about here: http://nickykylegardening.com/index.php/recipes/483-how-to-make-basic-milk-kefir . You may wonder why I'm telling you about this - when I've never mentioned it very much before? It's mainly because when I give talks, I often meet people who say "Oh I couldn't possibly do that - I've got this, that or the other wrong with me" - but I am proof that if you want to garden - you can do it somehow - with a bit of determination and a little ingenuity! My old GP long ago gave up trying to make me take it easy! As I always used to say to him - "I want to garden - so in that case - then I have to keep my gardening muscles fit!" - anyway - in my opinion doing nothing is the fastest route to becoming even more unfit, more unhealthy and even less able to enjoy doing anything! My lovely new lady GP agrees with me - although perhaps she may secretly think I'm a lost cause!! She does at least agree with me though that food is the best medicine - and that's a good start!
Anyway - walking into the tunnel again after even that short break away from it, I was amazed at the surge in the growth of some of the plants - despite the cold weather! Plants know what time of year it is from the light just like all of Nature does - and they are ready and primed to start their yearly cycle once again. All the tunnel salads had really responded to even the small amount of increased light! The Oriental salads were positively burgeoning - and the watercress in particular hadn't at all minded the fact that I wasn't there opening the doors every day - growing at least six inches in a week! It's such a wonderfully reliable salad all year round, just needs regular watering - not running water - contrary to what many 'experts' say. The only thing that makes it unhappy is being very short of water, which makes it flower. Then it becomes stringy, tough and very peppery. The bees really love the flowers though! If you only grow one salad - then do try growing it! It grows like a weed, from just a bit of stem stuck in a jar of water, comes top of the list for healthy nutrients and is chock full of immune-boosting, cancer-fighting phytonutrients such as sulforaphane. My watercress, like my kefir, is something I rely on and have kept going for many years. I was so thrilled to be able to gather lots of it's luscious leaves yesterday for a lovely fresh-tasting salad. My hens also really enjoyed disposing of the last of the week-old salads that were lingering in the fridge. There's never any food waste here!
Fruit trees suitable for polytunnel growing.
This morning I even noticed there's a tiny hint of movement in the buds on the peach trees already despite the low temperatures we've had recently. I'm so looking forward to their luscious fruits again and carefully eking out the last of the frozen and dehydrated ones. Peaches, along with grapes, strawberries and of course figs are very easy to grow in polytunnels if you have enough space. My two 7 year old peach trees provide masses of fruit every summer now. I love peaches and it's well nigh impossible to get organically grown ones. I always cut up the excess and freeze or dehydrate them for smoothies, sorbets or other treats. I think that peaches are the very best fruit tree to plant in a tunnel if you have space for only one tree - they're usually self-fertile and are easily kept within bounds by correct pruning. If you forget for a year, you can hack the hell out of them and they'll still come back for more - but if you aren't brave enough and don't prune them - they'll quickly outgrow any polytunnel or greenhouse and seriously threaten the roof!
The really great thing about growing peaches in a tunnel is theydon't get peach leaf curl - so don't have to be sprayed with any nasty fungicides. One of the other great things about peaches is that because of the way they are pruned - you can keep them to what ever height and width you want. So as long as you have roughly 15ft or 3m of width - you've got room for a productive peach tree. It's vital to prune them properly though - and remember that they mostly fruit on the previous year's new green growth, as I described in this January's Fruit Garden Diary. Soon both Lidl and Aldi will have bare root fruit trees on sale again. At around a fiver each - they're fantastic value and in my experience are very good quality. Bare-root planting is always best with any fruit tree and I talked about that last month too. They always establish far better than anything bought in a container. The vital thing to remember is to always leave a minimum of 4 in. or 10cm between the bulge of the graft union on the stem and the top of the soil. If you don't do that you will lose the dwarfing properties of the root stock.
Other trees, particularly cherries, can be an absolute disaster, unless you have a lot of time to fuss over them - particularly in the usually damp-ish atmosphere of the average tunnel here in Ireland. They really only work well grown on very dwarfing root stocks in the specialist fruit tunnels which I've seen in Herefordshire/Welsh border - where many of my family live. Even then they need a lot of regular pruning to keep them under control. Specialised fruit tunnels have sides which can slide up, and tops that open up too - so that you get maximum air circulation and also good pollination when you need it. I'd love a specialist fruit tunnel - but sadly the finances won't stretch that far - so like most people I try to do as much as I can in one! It's so windy here that one might not be successful anyway! Over the last 35 years, I've tried all the latest dwarfing root-stocks for sweet cherries, even the 'minarette' ones, and none of them really work unless you are constantly pruning, snipping and fussing to keep them within bounds - something I really don't have time for. It's also difficult as you can only prune cherries at certain times of year - and this also happens to be the busiest time elsewhere in the garden. So take your eye off the ball at all and you'll find the cherry has lifted the roof off your polytunnel. Believe me - I've tried!. I would never recommend planting one in a tunnel. They seem quite innocuous for a year or so - and you might think - what's she talking about? But believe me - when they think you've taken your eye off them - they can take off like rockets! I've tried them in tubs too - and they're not that happy in those either for very long. On the other hand - Morello cherries, which are pruned in a similar way to peaches - can work fairly well in pots for a few years - but you'll never get huge crops from cherries in pots - and huge crops are what I always aim for! I'm a greedy fruit fanatic and the dark, sour or Morello cherries are also one of the best fruits for anthocyanins which are proven to lower inflammation and ease arthritis.
Another reminder to order seeds now - if you want a tunnel full of healthy veg next winter!
A neighbour came to look at my tunnel the other day, and was surprised to see how great a variety of things there were to eat at this time of year. He has a small tunnel - and wanted to know how he could do the same next winter. It's really only a matter of remembering to sow seeds at the right time. Late June or July is the best time to sow many of the chicories, chards, oriental veg. etc. otherwise they don't have enough time to grow before the days really begin to shorten - when growth of many things slows dramatically. Summer is not always the most popular time to be anticipating winter though, much nicer to enjoy sunbathing instead! But gardeners must think well ahead if they want to produce food to be as self-sufficient as possible all year round food. So do remember to order seeds nowof things like claytonia, chicories, endives, Swiss chards, leaf beets, sugar loaf chicory, Chinese cabbages, lambs lettuce, pak choi, winter radishes, winter lettuces, watercress and landcress (you'll find a delicious soup recipe for these last two on the recipe page). Stupidly - many garden centres tend to take their seeds off sale once summer gets under way. They think that gardeners won't want seeds then - but REAL gardeners growing real food do! So make sure you have them.
I am constantly amazed at the number of people who only get round to clearing up the remains of last year's mouldy and disease-ridden old tomato and cucumber stems or other crops now! They could have been eating delicious home-produced salads and other veg all winter......not only are they completely wasting precious and expensive cropping space for at least one third of the year - but they then wonder why their lovely summer crops almost immediately get hit by pests and diseases as soon as they plant out this year's crops.This is because the spores of fungal diseases like botrytis etc will be flying around the minute they go to clear up the mess! Any protected cropping space is so valuable - and often so hugely expensive to put up initially - that every inch of it it should be earning it's keep all year round!
So how to afford the 'luxury' of protected polytunnel cropping?
Several people have said to me in the past -"It's all right for you - I don't have a tunnel - I can't afford one - so I don't bother reading the bit about greenhouses and tunnels, because I can't do it!". - Well do you know what? For a start - you could actually grow many of the lower growing crops in a large polythene cold frame - that's what I did - before I had my first small polytunnel. If you work out how much you spend all year round on vegetables and fruit - particularly now with food prices rising - and then compare that against the price of a small tunnel - where you could grow a huge amount of it yourself - I think you would be surprised at just how quickly it would pay for itself! Not to mention the convenience and added health benefits of absolute freshness, or being able to garden in any weather - even at night after work to de-stress!! Some of the DIY stores sell plastic-covered greenhouse frames very cheaply now - for less than €100. But if you really don't have the space for a greenhouse or polytunnel, or can't afford one, you may have a large glass porch, or you could make a polythene frame easily and very cheaply, sit it on a concrete path and grow in containers if you don't have any soil to grow in - so there's really no reason why you can't grow even a few winter salads at the very least! In something that size you could also grow bush tomatoes, peppers or aubergines in the summer. I did that very successfully when I first started gardening years ago, making up my own frame from recycled timber and polythene, and I promise you that if I can do it - then anyone can! DIY is most definitely not my thing! I grew my best peppers and aubergines ever in that rickety old recycled frame! It lasted several years too - I was very proud of myself! So please don't use the "I can't" excuse - that is, unless you don't even have so much as a path to your front door!
One thing I can absolutely guarantee, is thatwhen it comes to polytunnels or greenhouses - what I call my'law of handbags'applies.That is - no matter how big your handbag, greenhouse, or freezer - it will NEVER be big enough for everything you want to put in it, once you've experienced it's delights!!
So always buy the biggest one you can possibly afford - you will bless every inch of it I promise you! I'll be making a new 'grow frame' this year, for hardening-off veg seedlings to be planted outside later. More protected cropping space is always useful here because it's so windy - and in late spring, when the tunnel is literally bursting at the seams, it's a great halfway-house for hardening off plants to grow completely unprotected outside later on.
Will you have 'Extra early potatoes' for Easter?
Your extra early potatoes could already be up about an inch or so if you planted them as I described last month in pots. Make sure they're covered every night with fleece - even if you're not expecting frost - just in case. In the middle of this month, they may be about 10cm/4-5in. high, then you can plant them out carefully, keeping the root ball together, into a tunnel bed, covering with a double or even treble layer of fleece if severely cold nights are forecast. Or you can leave them in their pots. You'll be eating these in mid-late April! You can also plant well sprouted seed potatoes directly into a tunnel bed any time now, again covering if necessary. These should be ready to eat in May, roughly in about 10-12 weeks, depending on the variety. As mentioned in previous diaries - I've always found 'Lady Christl' to be the very best for really earlies in the tunnel, good flavoured, it's by far the quickest to 'bulk up' - one can often find usable potatoes underneath it after just 8 weeks - if you're impatient like me and do a gentle, exploratory 'finger-dig', leaving the rest to grow on undisturbed! 'Duke of York' or 'Red Duke of York' is next best for earliness (and also the best flavour of the lot), 'Mayan Gold' is only a few days after them - planted at the same time - and of course has an unsurpassed flavour - 'Apache' is a delicious early too and then 'Sharpe's Express' - 'Annabelle' is also not bad. I've tried all of the other earlies - including 'Rocket',Swift and 'Premiere' and quite frankly they were utterly tasteless compared to any of the ones I grow. Flavour is a very subjective thing however - and let's face it - given enough butter almost anything tastes good!! 'Mayan Gold' seems to be generally available now in Ireland (I smuggled mine in via my daughter's backpack years ago)! Try it and I can guarantee you will be as rapturous in singing it's praises as I am!! Never boil it or it falls apart because it's so floury - steam or roast it instead. Mayan Gold is also energy saving as it actually cooks far more quickly than normal varieties - in about half the time!
Pollination forpeaches, nectarines and apricots in the tunnel
As I mentioned earlier, I noticed only yesterday that the tiny fruit buds on some of the tunnel trees are already swelling. They may well start to come into flower at the end of this month or early next - depending on where in Ireland or the UK you may live and how warm the weather is. Although you may see one or two non-hibernating bumblebees about on fine days, there may not be enough about just yet to ensure that they reliably pollinate all the flowers properly under cover in a tunnel. So do this yourself with a small dry soft paintbrush, at midday if possible, when the tunnel is warmest and the pollen dry. Just gently go from flower to flower - lightly brushing the stamens on each one. Do this every day if possible while they're flowering- it's easy to miss a few. It's not obligatory to buzz when you're doing this....but if it amuses you....who's to say it doesn't help?! (Sound waves and all that!! - There are more things in Heaven and Earth as I always say!) After a few days you'll see that a few start to look a slightly darker pink at the base of the petals - this means they've pollinated and have 'set' fruit - so no need to re-do those particular flowers. Keep an eye out for the peach trees in Lidl and Aldi in the next week or so - they're fantastic value! Both of mine in the tunnel came from there a few years ago for a fiver each - they're now 8 years old and both produced well over 200 peaches last year. We're still eating them from the freezer.
Attracting bees and other beneficial insects to help
The other things which really helps pollination is growing flowers! As I mentioned last month's - flowers are vital for attracting bees into your garden - as well as many other beneficial insects which help with both pollination and pest control. I've often mentioned the little permanent ,mini gardens, which I grow at the end of the tunnels - in the corners either side of the doors - where space is so often wasted or taken up with junk. I also have flowers planted in the middle at the sides too - and anywhere else I can tuck them in. These little 'mini gardens' have flowers all year round to attract bees etc. and mini pond habitat to attract frogs. They also have piles of large stones - little mini cairns - for ground beetles etc to hide in. Ground beetles are voracious predators of slugs.These little mini ecosystems are vital in helping to achieve a natural ecological balance within the tunnels which ensures that I never have any pest problems. I also allow clumps of nettles to grow here and there - these play host to an early appearing aphid - specific just to nettles - which are the favourite prey of ladybirds that are just waking up in spring. Growing row upon row of green juicy vegetables - without a flower in sight either inside or outside - is not a natural environment. They make your crops a target for every hungry pest in sight!
Why would any self-respecting pollinating bee or pest controlling hoverfly visit your vegetable garden if there are none of their favourite flowers and food plants there to attract them? They have to go wherever they can find nectar and pollen or they may die. It's only common sense that if you're starving hungry and have to find food for energy within a few hours or die - you'll head for somewhere there's plenty of food on offer - you won't go to the gym or the solicitors will you?!! If you don't have anything flowering in your tunnel - you can bring some in in pots of flowers - hellebores, perennial wallflowers (like 'Bowles' mauve'), miniature narcissus, crocus, primroses, perennial Iberis or candytuft, etc are all good insect attractants. Feverfew and Hesperis (dames violet) are also flowering now. In fact anything that flowers now is useful - the only requirement is that they must be single flowered - It's impossible for bees and hoverflies etc. to reach the nectaries and pollen in double flowered plants and at this time of year in particular - they may waste precious energy trying to find food and then may die if they can't.
Pesticides or pollinators? - It's up to us!
Pesticides are definitely one of the causes for the recent huge decline of bees and other pollinators. Neonicotinoids and the fungicides they are often combined with in particular - as they affect the bees sense of direction and ability to forage. I won't bore you with explaining - there's enough information about them out there now. They should be banned completely! We need our bees - they are vital to crop pollination and ultimately - to mankind's survival. The multinational chemical companies don't care - they're already putting millions of dollars into farming bumble bees - their latest sick business opportunity!! The pro-chemical people promote the idea that organic farming couldn't possibly feed the world's growing population. The reality is that because organic farming protects and improves soils - it's far more sustainable and also helps to cut global carbon emissions! I read some interesting research the other day that said that if we cut out all food waste - now almost 50% of all the food now produced globally, we could feed another billion people tomorrow. But even if we stopped all food waste now - if we destroy our soils and our pollinating insects with pesticides - there would be mass starvation anyway - as there would be no soil left to grow in and many valuable crops like fruit, nuts and oil seeds need to be pollinated. Healthy crops also need a healthy, humus rich soil to grow in otherwise all plants are more susceptible to pests, diseases and the increasing fluctuations of the weather.
We are not just poisoning our soils but also our pollinating insects and many other creatures with pesticides - they are the canaries that are being sacrificed in this giant 'coalmine' that is our planet's ecosystem. We see the effects of pesticides and other chemicals on insects and the rest of biodiversity long before they gradually affect us because their lives are far shorter and we see the effects more quickly - but by poisoning them we are ultimately poisoning ourselves too! Organic gardening and farming doesn't harm them - in fact it helps them. We have a choice - it's up to us to make that choice if we want
Water only if absolutely necessary in the tunnel at the moment. Doing it in the morning is best if you can - as this allows any surface moisture to dry off before evening. If you're covering crops with fleece it also helps if the soil surface dries off a bit during the day or fleece tends to absorb more. I watered 3 days ago - for the first time in 3 months! Plants were wilting in the sunshine - which is getting a bit stronger now. Also ventilate as much as you can whenever possible, to keep the air moving and avoid the atmosphere becoming too damp - which encourages fungal diseases. Keep an eye on weather forecasts for very strong winds though - you don't want your polytunnel taking off into the next parish - (a story there - tell you sometime - I'll never forget losing a polytunnel in hurricane 'Charlie' in the mid 80's!). Growth of all plants will suddenly start to increase in the next week or so - thanks to the light - so you can increase watering accordingly when you need to.
Also it's important now to continue scrupulous housekeeping! Tidy up any yellowing, rotting or diseased leaves etc. and also the remains of finished crops. Don't leave anything hanging around that could cause disease!
Waking up your soil friends after the winter
If there's not much worm activity in your soil generally - then do a pH test. Worms like a pH of about 6.5 - 7 and if your soil Ph is right and worms have plenty of green food to eat - then they should be lively and pink - not sluggish and pale. If you find your soil is a bit too acid then add some calcified seaweed to gently raise the pH. You can't go wrong with this, as it's very gentle and also contains lots of other valuable micro-nutrients and trace elements. Then lightly scratch over the ground, add some nice well-rotted compost and perhaps a few handfuls of seaweed meal which worms also love. If you don't have compost then a handful per square yard of a general organic fertiliser like 'Osmo' will add more nutrients but if you've got time before the next crop planned for a particular space - maybe 6 weeks - then sowing a fast growing green manure is a really good idea. Not only does it help all the biological activity in your soil but it also adds humus which makes soils more resilient and helps them to hold onto moisture like a sponge. Even claytonia - not usually used as a green manure, is brilliant. The worms go mad for it - it's like crack cocaine for them! This will help to kick start all the biological activity in the soil as it warms up - giving the worms, microbes, fungi and soil bacteria some TLC and a welcome gourmet breakfast, just when they're starting to wake up. Interesting fact - did you know that there are more billions of microbes, soil bacteria, fungi etc. in just one teaspoon of soil - than the total number of people who have ever lived on this earth? If it wasn't for them - we wouldn't even exist!! So learn to love your microbes!
Organic growing feeds the soil and all the vital microbial life it contains with compost and animal wastes just as nature does. It doesn't directly feed the plants with synthetic chemicals. That's the most important thing to remember - because if you by-pass all the microbes and funghi that evolved to interact with plant roots symbiotically and produce their by-products which keep plants healthy, you will ultimately produces unhealthy plants. A healthy, vibrant, living soil grows healthy, vibrant, nutritious plants. Healthy plants make healthy food for people. This is particularly important to remember in a polytunnel, where things tend to be magnified, things happen a lot faster, and we are totally responsible for the growing environment.
Time to start sowing some early seeds in modules
To make sure I have something to plant as soon as the winter crops are finished both in the tunnel and outside, I started sowing a few early crops in mid-January. Details of what you cansow now are in the 'What to sow in Feb.' section, so I won't repeat them here. Things like onions, leeks, beetroot etc. can be multi sown in the modules - in 3's or 5's - depending on how many you want in a clump - or how big you want your onions (less in a clump for bigger onions) and they're planted out later without thinning. These will push each other apart as they grow and develop quite normally. You can do the same with summer spinach, chards and 'baby leaf' or salad mixes. Rather than use an expensive propagator at this time of year I germinate everything near the back of my range cooker - which keep things at a steady 65-70 deg F/16-20 deg C. As soon as the first seedlings are showing they need good light, so then I put them out in the polytunnel, on a roll-out heated mat which provides very gentle bottom heat of about 50 degF/10 deg C - or just above during the day - and is very economical to run. This is all most things need to grow on nicely without forcing. In another 2 weeks in the warmer propagator I shall sow my aubergines Bonica F1, (the very best and most reliable one) these develop quite slowly at first and need a long growing season. I'll also be sowing my earliest tomatoes - Maskotka, Latah and John Baer. These are always ripe in the first week or so of June. I can't wait for ripe tomatoes again! Talking of which - there may be some very exciting news soon on the tomato front - but can't reveal it yet!!
What are 'Blind seedlings' that don't develop?
Occasionally there are seedlings that develop they're first seed leaves or cotyledons as they are known - but after that they don't grow any more new leaves. These are known as blind seedlings. In cases where you may only want one plant per space - like lettuces or hybrid calabrese - it's normal to thin seedlings to one per module, but only do this after they have clearly developed their first 'true' leaves - not the seedling/cotyledon leaves - as 'blind seedlings they will never develop 'true' leaves and grow on. This is quite common with brassicas and if it happens you could waste space on a seedling which will never develop any further - so don't thin them too early! With calabrese seed in particular - which can be expensive - it also wastes seed and money! I've never seen any of the 'so-called' experts telling you this - they always tell you to thin as soon as you can handle the seedlings! Over 40 years of experience (OMG can't believe it!) does actually teach one a few useful things!
Sowing early peas and broad beans in pots
Sprouted broad beans sown in 500g yogurt pots
Sprouted mangetouts sown for pea shoots and pods
At this time of year - I always soak my broad beans and peas for a couple of hours before then sprouting them on damp kitchen paper on a plate covered with cling film and put in a warmish place. I always get the best germination this way. It saves the seed sitting in cold wet compost for too long and possibly rotting. They sprout in about 2-3 days and then as soon as the 'radicle' or main tap root appears - I then sow them in large pots as you can see above (I use recycled 500 ml yogurt pots - they're the perfect size!). 3 broad beans to a pot or a small handful of peas (don't count them) per pot. I don't thin the beans or the peas as it's totally unnecessary - I've tried doing it over the years but the plants produce just the same crop per plant - so obviously crop more per sq.ft/m if on a deep, raised bed. Thinning them after germination is not only totally unnecessary, but is also time-consuming and wastes valuable seed. These potfuls will be planted out about 30cm/1ft. apart when big enough.
I am always amazed at just how much better the germination is with home-saved seed. I got 100% germination of the yummy Crimson Flowered Broad Bean as per usual (good job as we've just finished the last from the freezer!). Beans and peas are the only things I cover with organic peat-free seed compost after sowing - everything else is covered with vermiculite - which promotes good air circulation and drainage around the seedling stem, virtually guaranteeing no 'damping off' disease - as long as you are careful with your watering. After sowing anything - only ever water again from underneath. This is easy to do by sitting the tray or module in a tray of water for a few seconds. And as I've often said before - if you do happen to overdo it by mistake - and we all do it occasionally - don't despair and leave them to rot in cold wet compost! It's very simple - just sit the tray of seedlings on a newspaper for 1/2 hour or so which acts like a wick to draw out the excess. All seeds need is a good seed compost, a little thought and plenty of TLC to grow - it's not rocket science!
Despite all the years I've been gardening - I never cease to be surprised, delighted and full of wonder at Nature's miracle of a tiny seed and it's determination to grow. That perfect little pre-programmed parcel of DNA - full of history and priceless, unique and irreplaceable genes. And - best of all - packed with a delicious promise of healthy food!
Do you know someone actually complained to me a few years ago that there's too much information in my blog?? I suppose these days everything is presented in small bites - which often leaves one with not enough information to do things properly - so then you think it's your fault when it doesn't work! Luckily many others disagree and really appreciate it - so for it's for those nice, appreciative people that I write it! I try to put on new, improved and relevant stuff each year - depending on the latest research. Although there's no substitute for experience - and you never stop learning in gardening - every year is different. I hope you find my experience useful.
I can remember only too well what it was like many years ago - trying to find out how to grow chemical-free food for my very sick child! You couldn't even buy organic vegetables and fruits then! Although there is much more availability of organic produce now - it's not only much cheaper, more satisfying and far fresher if you can grow it yourself even if it's only salads - but you can also have a far wider choice of produce and nutrients by growing your own food. If you want to grow a lot of things then you need all the information to be successful. Very often gardening advice in magazines seems to have been written by people who either haven't actually done what they're talking about - or are complete novices and are just repeating stuff from old gardening books almost verbatim! That won't do any more - our climate is changing and also soil science is moving on and we are better informed than ever. Despite that though - we should never assume that we know it all - Nature doesn't give up her secrets easily!
Early spring has already arrived in the tunnel - and I couldn't possibly garden without one now!
As I've been saying ever since I got my very first tiny one - about 38 years ago now - 'If I only had a small garden - I would cover the entire space with a polytunnel'. I definitely think there should be government grants for back-gardeners to put them up! Just think of how much they'd save the health service with all that gentle exercise, fresh air, light and healthy chemical-free food! It's just what the doctor ordered! It's truly wonderful to be able to walk into the tunnel and feel the gentle background warmth and dryness when the sun shines at this time of year - it's so full of hope. Every time I open the door and walk into that other world, I thank the Garden Gods once again for the blessing of such a snug and richly productive space to grow things in.
As Fionnuala Fallon so beautifully put it in her Irish Times article about my polytunnel in November 2010 - "....it was a bit like walking into the wardrobe of C S Lewis - not quite Narnia perhaps, but definitely a very different universe....." - Indeed it is! There's a link to her article below:
(Thank you so much to all the people who have taken the time to write and thank me for my work - or thanked me on Twitter.I really enjoy sharing my original ideas and 40 years experience of growing and cooking my own organic food with you. It's most satisfying and naturally also very complimentary if others find "inspiration" in my work......But if you do happen to copy any of my material, or repeat it in any way online - I would appreciate it very much if you would please mention that it originally came from me, as it's the result of many years of hard work. Thank you.)
Seeds of hope. Home-saved non-F1 hybrid Heritage seeds that will provide plenty of food for us, bees & other vital beneficial insects all year
This month - in a heated propagator - you can sow*:
For tunnel/greenhouse growing later - Early tomatoes, aubergines, sweet and chilli peppers, calabrese/broccoli, celery, celeriac, physalis (Chinese gooseberries) and dwarf French beans (for very early cropping in pots). Also half-hardy annual flowers like nicotiana, which need a long growing season.
Early sowing in warmth will gain you a couple of weeks in most cases - but bear in mind that all of these will need warmth for some time yet though - After the initial higher temperature germination in a heated propagator, they will then need growing on with a minimum bottom heat of around 50deg.F/10deg.C - in a draught-free space, perhaps on a hotbed or a roll-out heated mat, protecting with fleece if frost is forecast and potting on when necessary to avoid any setbacks, then gradually hardening off and finally planting out in the tunnel as soon as the late winter/early spring crops are cleared from late April/early May onwards.
In more gentle warmth
(At approx 10deg.C - either on a roll out heated mat with adjustable thermostat or in your house, putting out into greenhouse or cold frame after germination when good light will be needed.
(*Bear in mind that most propagators on the market are set to approximately 20 deg.C - or slightly warmer, unless they have adjustable thermostats):
For planting out in the tunnel - or outdoors under cloches later:
You can sow brassicas such as early summer cauliflowers, summer cabbages, red cabbage, early Brussels sprouts and the new varieties of 'summer purple sprouting' broccoli, lettuces, perennial veg. like Welsh onions, globe artichokes and seakale, spinach, spring onions(scallions), early leeks and bulb onions, shallots, early peas, broad beans, kohl rabi, white turnips, land cress, rocket, salad mixes, watercress.
Now is also a good time to sow bee-friendly, fast-growing hardy annuals like limnanthes, calendulas, convulvulus tricolour, borage etc. - to provide early flowers for attracting beneficial insects like hoverflies into the tunnel to help with pest control. Early flowers will also provide a welcome early meal for bees - which are vital for pollination of early flowering polytunnel fruit trees like peaches. Provide the food they need and they'll keep coming back, as bees quickly learn where reliable sources of food are and communicate this knowledge to the rest of their fellow bees, clever things - a mutually beneficial relationship for them and us!
Directly into soil pre-warmed with cloches, or in pots/modules in the tunnel without heat:
(covering on very cold nights with fleece):
You can sow more hardy crops like broad beans, carrots, kale 'Ragged Jack', Black Tuscan and other kales for baby leaves, Ruby chard and 'Bull's Blood' or McGregor's favourite beetroot for high anthocyanin beet leaves, pre-sprouted mangetout and early peas, for both pea shoots and podded peas -(pre-sprouting in warmth ensures faster germination which means seeds are less prone to rotting and mouse damage), lettuces, herbs, (not basil yet - it's too cold) mixed leaf salads, oriental mustards and salad mixes, rocket, summer spinach etc. These will all crop before June in the tunnel or greenhouse.
Planting half the modules inside and the other half outside under cloches is a good way to spread cropping times. Other hardy crops like beetroot, kales and chards can also be sown in modules now for planting outside under cloches later. Remember - even most hardy seeds won't germinate below a soil temperature of about 45degF or 7degC.
Another tip - lettuce and spinach seeds prefer to be fairly cool for the first 24-48 hours, as higher temperature can trigger dormancy- so don't sow these in too much heat. I always sow them at normal house temperature, there I can also keep an eye on them and uncover as soon as they start to germinate. I then transfer them out to the polytunnel so that they have really good light, protecting at night if frost is forecast.
Small seedlings will also need protecting from frost with fleece if it's very cold. If you can provide these conditions then almost everything but the most tender crops can be sown in suitable modules in mid-late February for planting out under cloches later - but don't grow them on with too much warmth or they will be too soft and 'leggy' as light levels are still relatively low.
Keep an eye out for mice which are very partial to pea and bean seeds and will even dig up and eat the seeds when the plants are already a couple of inches high, as I know to my cost!
All of these things could be germinated anywhere warm and then grown onin very good light on a windowsill if you have room - but do bring them inside the room at night if you close the curtains, or they may get chilled on cold nights. And remember that a south facing window may be too hot even at this time of year. One well known journalist in the west of Ireland told me he puts his tomatoes under his Velux office window in good light after germinating them in the warm - a great idea! I couldn't work out how he'd got them so early when he wrote complaining that my advice on side shooting tomatoes was far too late for his plants - his Pantano Romanesco had already gone completely bonkers by May!! That particular beefsteak variety needs even more severe discipline than most - but the exceptional flavour makes it well worth the extra trouble!
It's muchtooearly yet to sow most melons and cucumbers. These are very fast growing - taking only about 12 weeks from sowing to harvest. The only exception is watermelons - the larger types of which need starting off in mid-late Feb. as they need a long growing season to be successful. The small 'Sugar Baby' will still crop well in a warm polytunnel if sown in March. Watermelons are also very tender, susceptible to even the slightest frost and are actually damaged below 50deg.F/10degC. - so unless youhave a heated greenhouse, (and who has in these carbon-conscious days?) they'll be far too big before it's warm enough to plant them out in the tunnel or before their allotted tunnel space is vacant. Potting them on into larger pots and placing on a 'roll out' heated mat to provide bottom warmth is a much more energy efficient option. I find it's best to wait until at least mid March for sowing most of the cucurbitaceae family - they can then grow on quickly without any check. Five years ago I tried sowing the delicious yellow courgette 'Atena' very early as an experiment - sown on 23rd Feb. and grown on in gentle warmth, it was planted into large pots in the west tunnel in early April and was given extra protection with fleece on cold nights. It gave a really early crop in early-mid May. I now do this every year - it's definitely well worth doing to get some delicious early courgettes!
As soon as the ground is in reasonable condition you can plantJerusalem Artichokes. If it's still too wet you can plant them in 2 litre pots for planting out in a few weeks.
You can also plant shallots, onion sets and garlic either in the ground or again in pots if it's too wet - but you must choose varieties of garlic which are labelled as suitable for spring planting - such as 'Christo'. If you plant 'autumn planting' varieties now they will just produce one single bulb rather that splitting into individual cloves which is what you want.
If you have well sprouted seed of any variety of potato you can plant some in large pots or directly into the tunnel soil now. These will need protecting from frost at all times. First early varieties are obviously best as these will bulk up quickly - giving a crop in about 10-12 weeks in late April or early May depending on variety - those grown on in pots from planting to harvest will also be slightly earlier than those planted out in the tunnel borders.
Don't attempt to sow anything outside into cold wet ground yet! If you haven't done so already - get cloches or a polythene cover out onto vegetable beds outside now to dry them out and start them warming it up. If your ground hasn't been covered all winter - it could take weeks to dry out after all the wet weather we've had. Another reason why ground should always be covered in winter - apart from the soil-loss, damage and possible pollution aspect!
I always use a good, well drained, organic peat-free seed compost for all my seed sowing. If you're not using organic peat-free then make sure you use a seed compost - rather than an multi-purpose compost. These may contain far too much fertiliser if not organic which may either inhibit germination of seedlings or even burn and kill emerging roots!
*JUST ONE MORE THING - Always open seed packets with clean dry hands - not 'garden muddy' hands! Most seed will last for ages if kept really dry and cool at all times. I find that a dry cool room is usually far better than most domestic refrigerators which can be too damp. (the exception is celery, carrots and parsnips, which tend to have reduced germination when more than 1 year old) Sow seed little and often - preferably in modules if you have room - it's far more time and cost-effective than sowing in rows and transplanting. It also avoids wasting seeds as it avoids root disturbance and possible damage or setback when 'pricking out' from seed trays - or from slugs eating vulnerable tiny seedlings.
P.S. IGNORE THE SEED PACKET'S ADVICE WHICH TELL YOU TO SOW THE SEEDS ALL AT ONCE IN A ROW OR IN A SEED TRAY as this can waste seed - REMEMBER - THEY WANT YOU TO BUY MORE!
Happy seed sowing everyone! May all your seeds be successful!
(Thank you so much to all the people who have taken the time to write and thank me for my work - or thanked me on Twitter.I really enjoy sharing my original ideas and 40 years experience of growing and cooking my own organic food with you. It's most satisfying and naturally also very complimentary if others find "inspiration" in my work......But if you do happen to copy any of my material, or repeat it in any way online - I would appreciate it very much if you would please mention that it originally came from me, as it's the result of many years of hard work. Thank you.)
A selection of some the 47 amazingly diverse varieties of tomatoes I grew for Ireland's first
ever 'Totally Terrific Tomato Festival' in 2012. A real feast for the eyes - and the taste buds!
This is my personal take on the best of some of the 100's of varieties I've grown over 42 years of tomato growing!
I'm adding a couple more tasty varieties to my list this year, after trying a few new varieties for this year's Tomato Festival. That was such a great excuse for a tomatoholic like me! Every year I try one or two new varieties which sound promising - comparing them to my tried and trusted ones which I've grown for many years. Sometimes I'm delighted to discover a new gem to add to my list - but often I'm disappointed. They have to be easy to grow, disease-resistant, productive and most of all have really great taste, in order to be a good variety in my eyes! I would never grow those ghastly 'Moneymaker' types which have virtually no taste but produce tons of tomatoes - whatever is the point of putting energy into those when there's so many other great tasting ones out there? Many of the newer F1 varieties are promoted by seed companies who own the plant-breeder's patents and despite the always glowing catalogue descriptions - I've found most of them disappointing. They often have very little taste or anything else to recommend them! Many are bred for a totally different climate - something people often don't factor in when choosing varieties. Rosada was the brilliant exception to that - but sadly it has now been dropped by all the major seed companies in favour of those bred by themselves, as they didn't own the patent! I have enough seed for the next couple of years or so after buying some extra last year - but after that there will be no more here - and I honestly don't know how I will manage without it!.
Many of the open-pollinated Heritage varieties have a lot more flavour - but not all. That often depends on where they're grown too. Some are very fussy and are far more suited to continental climates like eastern Europe or the USA, where they enjoy much hotter, drier summers and far higher light levels than we do here in Ireland! Many of those 'continental' varieties that I've tried stretch towards the light as if absolutely desperate for it - poor things! Even their shape can be a problem too. Varieties such as Costuloto Fiorentino and Costuloto Genovese admittedly do have a great flavour - but their fascinatingly ribbed and pleated shapes unfortunately attract and hold on to any moisture in the air, which in the humidity of an Irish polytunnel in our average often damp summer automatically results in disease!
Climate can affect every aspect of tomatoes. Growing conditions here in Ireland are totally different to the much drier and warmer south or east of the UK - where light levels are also generally better and where many seed companies trial grounds are based. Our summer temperatures are always an average of 10 degrees centigrade lower all summer long and we also get a lot more rain - resulting in the kind of high humidity which cucumbers love - but tomatoes really hate!! Lower levels of light can affect tomatoes more than many other crops too. Although we're quite close to the east coast here - only about 5 miles as the crow flies - we don't get the benefit of the brighter 'reflected light' that many living closer to the sea do. This is because we're also over 400 feet above sea level and even in summer we often get gloomy low cloud and sea mist hanging around for much of the day, which may only clear for 3 or 4 hours around midday, then descends again about 3pm! As a result - tomato growing conditions here can be pretty challenging to say the least! I believe that any tomato which grows well and and tastes great here will deserve a space in anyone's greenhouse or polytunnel - wherever they may live!
Tomatoes are a vitally important crop globally. For me it would be absolutely impossible to imagine life without them - whether it's just in your humble lunchtime BLT sandwich or salad, on your pizza for supper - or whether you're a Michelin starred chef! During his highly entertaining talk at the 2016 Totally Terrific Tomato Festival, Dr. Mathew Jebb, Director of our National Botanic Gardens imparted a mind-boggling piece of information - which was that each year the entire human race eats half of it's own weight in tomatoes! That perfectly illustrates just how important tomatoes are in our diet worldwide! I've always loved them - having grown up eating the wonderful sun-warmed produce from my parents greenhouse. That first unmistakable scent of tomato foliage in spring always brings those memories back to me instantly. As a member of the HDRA - (now Garden Organic UK) Heritage Seed Library for many years, I held a tomato day in the National Botanic Gardens here back in the late 1980s, using varieties many which were kindly provided by the HSL. In early 2012 - seeing the stunningly beautiful new black tomato Indigo Rose sparked ideas again and seeing it's beauty galvanised me into action once more! This resulted in my idea of a 'Totally Terrific Tomato Festival' in the hope that it would raise public awareness of the ever-increasing importance of preserving genetic diversity. Indigo Rose was the first ever naturally-bred, high-anthocyanin tomato and it's seed only became available for the first time commercially in early 2012. It's stunning colour is so breathtakingly beautiful and unusual that I knew it wouldn't fail to catch people's attention. It certainly did that - and two very successful, fun festivals have happened since.
After the first two - there was a hiatus for a couple of years as unfortunately I had an accident just after the second Totally Terrific Tomato Festival in 2013, breaking my right shoulder into several pieces. Having been left with only a half-working arm, I knew that sadly I wasn't going to be able to do that huge amount of organisation and work single-handedly ever again, in addition to still trying to grow our own food here! I hoped that some other 'tomatophile' would eventually pick up the baton and carry it on. So you can imagine my delight when Jane Powers, the wonderful garden writer and gardening correspondent of The Irish Sunday Times, called me in late 2015 to say that she thought it would be such a pity if we lost it altogether and to ask me if I would mind if she put my idea to Lord and Lady Ardee of the beautiful Killruddery Estate, in County Wicklow. She felt that with their expertise in organising event, their beautiful surroundings and a perfect location easily accessible from everywhere, it could potentially be the perfect place to hold it. The rest, as they say, is history - and due to a lot of hard work, mostly on Jane's part and also by everyone at Killruddery - another highly successful Totally Terrific Tomato Festival was held once again last September. My 'baby' had found a wonderful new home! Many enthusiastic tomato growers from every corner of Ireland generously brought along their special treasures to share with us. There were competitions, talks, stalls selling all sorts of tomato-related products and general convivial 'tomatoness'! It was such a joy to see the 138 varieties of tomatoes in all their incredibly varied, eye-popping diversity, displayed and shown to perfection in the beautiful light surroundings of the Orangery at Killruddery. Seeing the wonder on the visitor's faces - especially the children's was such a joy. And I got to do the bit I love best - talking about tomatoes!
People gazing in wonder at an amazing kaleidoscope of tomatoes on one of the tables at the Totally Terrific Tomato Festival 2016
It is vitally important that we preserve our heritage seed varieties - just as so many other tomato lovers before us did, over many centuries. bequeathing them in turn to us. We are the lucky recipients of an irreplaceable and priceless inheritance from those gardeners and food growers of the past and owe owe them a huge debt of gratitude. We are the current custodians of that genetic diversity. It is vital that we care for it and preserve it for the sake of future generations. So much precious genetic diversity in all food crops has already been lost. For me a life without tomatoes would be unthinkable - I don't know about you?
Taste is a very subjective thing - it often depends what sort of diet you have or whether you smoke or drink - which can dull the taste buds. I reckon our taste buds are pretty unspoiled here having eaten mostly nothing but organic food for over 40 years and very little sugar! The tomato varieties listed here are mostly on my list because they have fantastic flavour. Some only develop their best flavour when cooked - others are better eaten raw. Also to be honest - one or two are on the list purely because they look stunning and the artist in me just can't resist them! How food looks is also important to me. We eat with our eyes - and I always like my food to look as beautiful as possible! All of them are worth preserving though - because at some time in the future, some desirable aspect of their genes, such as disease or pest-resistance, may possibly be needed in new, natural breeding programmes. We have no idea what as yet unknown challenge may arise with increasing climate change. This year was a really bad one here for tomato growing! All the information here is reviewed and updated each year.
I've been asked so many times over the years which is my all time favourite variety. It's an impossible question for me, trying to narrow it down to just one - they all have their different uses. That's like asking me which is my favourite child!.... I suppose if I were to be allowed one of each type - then it would be a little less difficult - but not much! If I could have only one of each type - then it would have to be Maskotka - bush, Rosada - cherry plum, John Baer - classic medium, Amish paste - cooking plum, and Pantano Romanesco (beefsteak). There - I don't think I can narrow it down any more than that. But then again - perhaps if I was really put to the sword and told that all others would be lost and what would I save - it would have to be the incredibly versatile and good-natured Rosada!
I think all bush varieties are much better grown in large containers raised up off the ground, as they tend to sprawl a little and can rot on the ground or get eaten by slugs if grown in greenhouse soil beds. A 10 litre container is fine size-wise. I use recycled coleslaw/mayo buckets from local supermarket deli (they just chuck them out for recycling and I sit those on grow bag trays as these retain any water or feed that drains through). Growing as a bush is actually the natural habit of tomatoes - we've just selected the varieties which are more amenable to growing as a cordon/upright fashion, purely for our convenience. Some refused to be trained however - and I rather admire them for that! Many are often the better flavoured ones too. Containers also restrict them a bit if they are a bit over-enthusiastic, thereby encouraging slightly earlier fruiting! I put the containers on the grow bag trays on upturned plant crates, barrels, benches, or something similar - where they can drape down decoratively and are much easier to pick without too much bending!
Maskotka - My no.1 bush! (This little treasure is available from many companies now) Medium to large cherry sized fruit. Everyone loves the 'more-ish' almost 'tomato sauce' flavour of this one without fail - It's one of the varieties that my 'From Tunnel to Table' co-presenter Gerry Kelly was 'swooning about' (to quote one listener) when we had our chat on LMFM radio the week before the 'Totally Terrific Tomato Festival' in 2012. I've grown this variety for many years now and I absolutely adore it! A middle-sized, incredibly productive, disease resistant bush - it's always without fail my very earliest variety - and also the last. Always ripe the first week of June from a late Feb/early March sowing - and I've often picked the last few in early December! It just doesn't know when to stop - if you keep picking and feeding it occasionally, it just keeps on flowering and setting fruit! It's only very slight fault is that if you let it get too over ripe, or water just a bit too much when the skins have 'set' and are ripening fast, it may split. I take that as a fault of the grower though - not the tomato! I'd forgive it anything! If it does split - just throw those straight into the freezer without delay - as it tastes even better when cooked - brilliant in a roast ratatouille or a tomato sauce - although it bursts and doesn't hold together like Chiquito! It's the easiest tomato of all to grow - no need to remove side shoots as it's a bush. You could even grow this one in a window box, or under a large cold frame if you haven't got a greenhouse - as it's quite low and spreading rather than tall, or even in a large hanging basket. It's far better than any of the usual varieties recommended for doing that (most of which are pretty tasteless and have very tough skins). 2 years ago I also grew one in a recycled plastic mushroom box on the top tread of my LMFM/Late Lunch Show/'Tips from the Tunnel' stepladder garden, where it fruited all summer long. I promise you - anyone can grow it. I wouldn't be without it!!
Chiquito F1 - (Simpsons seeds) A smallish, plum shaped cherry type, meaty/firm fleshed, dusky/pinky red. I first grew this one 10 years ago as it was described as having a very good flavour. I quite liked it - it was sweet with quite a good flavour though not that brilliant compared to Rosada which is always my taste yardstick now. Somehow it didn't really have that 'certain something' for me! It also made a very vigorous sprawling bush - not ideal in a greenhouse or tunnel border. Two years ago, however, I decided to give it another chance and try it in containers instead. Boy- am I glad I did! I grew it in my 10 litre containers on grow bag trays again this year, and I can definitely say I've now discovered another gem - not for eating fresh - but actually for cooking! Looking around one day for something to throw in a roast ratatouille - I grabbed a few handfuls of this one, and chucked them in whole half-way through. Cooking utterly transforms them! They stay whole without collapsing - and biting into them is like bursting an incredible flavour bomb! Amazing! I shall be growing more plants next year specifically for cooking - and freezing too, as in my experience those meaty, dense-fleshed small tomatoes freeze very well and are very useful in the winter for stuffing peppers etc. I think it could be good dehydrated too - as that concentrates the sugars in tomatoes and enhances the flavour, as long as they aren't too acid (don't do that with Sungold - it's horrible!). I cook them from frozen, just throwing them into a roast ratatouille half-way through cooking or into a pan of olive oil to use as a side veg.
Latah - (Real Seeds) Again very early, fabulous flavour (see Jane Powers article re 2013 TomFest) - but doesn't go on producing quite as long as Maskotka. It makes a larger, more spreading bush and produces a very large crop of all sizes and shapes - and some would definitely win weirdest shaped tomato! Some with a meaty centre like a mini beefsteak - others more like cherries. Disease resistant middle-sized bush - quite 'twiggy' rather than very leafy. The very first time I grew it, it was so almost 'leafless' that I thought at first it must have something wrong with it! Good air circulation as a result though. Doesn't have as long a season as Maskotka, but you could do two sowings - one early & one later on. One thing though is that the odd shaped fruits with lots of crevices can cling on to moisture a bit which can sometimes set up disease in damp years.
Incas F1 (Organic Gardening Catalogue & other companies) A very productive, great flavoured Italian plum type. Although it's a bush it's disease resistant despite being very vigorous. Two years ago I tried it in containers and it was terrific. Easy, good-natured and incredibly productive. Despite being a 'cooking' type also has quite a good flavour raw. This was the other one I found dehydrated brilliantly and the flavour deepened considerably - almost as good as Rosada for doing this.
Greensleeves (Plants of Distinction) Quite a fruity flavour. Tastes better with some salt or basil oil. Cooks well - makes an unusual 'Tarte Tatin'! Hugely productive, impressive looking, very attractive green/yellow striped, sausage-shaped fruit on vigorous, disease-resistant, middle-sized bush. Crops for a long time. Something for a rather different salad perhaps - possibly worth growing for that alone. Not bad dehydrated. One of the ones I grow from time to time for looks alone - especially if there's a Tomato Festival happening!! Very attractive and unusual.
Purple Ukraine & Banana Cream
Banana Cream (tradewindsfruitstore) Great shape and instantly attractive though not the best flavour! A bit disease prone here too. Grew it 30 years ago from HDRA Heritage Seed Library seed. My opinions haven't changed - a cream coloured, banana shaped, curiosity for exhibition or to wow your pals - that's all! (Pictured here with Purple Ukraine which I wouldn't bother to grow again- very spindly, obviously needing better light!)
Two unusual bush varieties that may be worth trying if you live somewhere less humid than me! They both have great flavour.
Green Grape (tradeswindsfruitstore.com and Simpson's) very sweet small cherry, unusual and pretty olive greeny/yellow colour. Tasty. Very vigorous bush that can be disease prone if you don't limit the foliage a bit. Very productive otherwise but a bit of a pain as it drops it's fruit very easily once just ripe and the minute you touch the bush they drop off - then you have to search underneath the copious foiage! At least you know that they're ripe then - as that's difficult being green! Better in a bucket - I grew it in the ground 30 years ago from HDRA/Heritage Seed Library seed and it took over half of the tunnel!
Black Sea Man (Plants of Distinction)Beefsteak/bush. I won't be growing this one again - it's far too temperamental in our climate! It does have a fabulously distinctive smoky rich flavour to be fair - but to grow it well you probably need to live in the warmer south-east of the UK - not in our cooler, more humid climate - even in a polytunnel! It's such a prima donna that I won't waste space on it again! (I've found one now that tastes pretty much the same but is far easier - Nyagous below) BSM is a bit like 'Black Krim' but sweeter. Extremely vigorous potato leaved very crowded bush, so air circulation can be a big problem. Gorgeous medium to huge beefsteak fruits that are a reddy/pinky/purpley sort of 'bruise' colour (or as one vegan friend I gave it to complained - it looks just like raw meat!!) so sweet you could almost eat it with sugar and cream, which I don't fancy trying - though oddly there are many sweet Shaker pudding recipes for tomatoes! It's problem is that it gets disease every year even in good weather - just when the first fruits are ripening and it's carrying a hugely promising crop. Not really worth the space or the work in my opinion - so be warned if you're thinking of growing it. This tomato is only worth growing in our climate here in Ireland if you don't mind just having great flavoured tomatoes for just one month at the most - instead of 6!! (I'm greedy!) And also be warned that rather than speaking from their own experience of actually growing it - I have seen some websites selling this tomato are 'borrowing' their descriptions directly from the catalogues of seed companies who may be in the south east of the UK - where the temperature is always about 10 deg C warmer all summer and a lot sunnier and drier than here. Tomatoes vary hugely in their innate disease resistance and cropping - and you need varieties that are tried and tested to be reliable over several years in our damp climate. I usually try varieties for 3 years before discarding - if they have a good enough flavour. They're dumped after the first year if they don't taste good
Cordon (upright) varieties - only bothering to review the very tastiest ones here or I would still be here next Christmas!
Cherry and cherry plum varieties
Rosada F1 - 5 star flavour! AN ABSOLUTE PARAGON OF A TOMATO, NUMBER ONE WITHOUT QUESTION ANDTHE VERY BEST CHERRY/PLUM!(I got mine in the past from Simpsons - I'm still including it even though I can no longer find it as I'm hoping that public pressure will bring it back! Please ask seed companies for it then they may decide to stock it again.)
As I've just said - if I only grew one tomato it would have to be this! Ab. Fab. flavour - and top of everyone's list who knows it or has tasted it here - the very best flavoured. Came top of the 'Which' taste trials some years ago - but no longer sold by the major seed companies for the reasons stated above. Great balance of sweetness and acidity. Very easy to grow and disease-free as it has well spaced, airy foliage, held well out from the stem. This is the one I ALWAYS recommend even for beginners. Very long trusses often almost 1m long - (I've had over 70 fruits on a single '3 branched' truss of one growing in a 10 litre container!) firm, meaty, small plum-shaped fruits that will last for absolutely ages on the plant so you can really ripen them to maximum sweetness. They may split eventually but only after about 3 weeks of absolute total ripeness and if your watering regime is irregular! (Sungold will split after only 3 days of being ripe!) They also keep for ages once picked, they freeze well and cook beautifully. Cut in half and dipped in hummus they are heavenly - or in fact anyway you like! Slow oven dried and stored in olive oil they are fabulous. 3 years ago I bought a dehydrator mainly for them and they are fantastic semi-dried, frozen and then re-hydrated in basil oil - yummy in festive salads, or 'delish' thrown straight into a roast ratatouille or stuffed sweet peppers! Such a good natured tomato - just as happy growing in buckets or the ground and always eager to please!! Has a tendency to keep on producing side shoots constantly from everywhere - but this is a plus as they easily root in a jar of water and you can pot some up for a later crop - thereby saving money on sowing more seed later. You can then bring potted ones into the house in late autumn to ripen their late fruits. What more can I say? If you only grow one - make sure it's this one if you can find it! You won't be disappointed. Please put pressure on seed companies to stock this variety again - it must not be lost!!
Sungold - a favourite with children
Sungold F1 - (available everywhere) Ubiquitous and delicious! Everyone knows it now - wonderful flavour, slightly more acid than Rosada so sadly doesn't dehydrate well as this accentuates their acidity. Best eaten straight off the plant or straight away when you get it to the kitchen. Doesn't keep on or off the plant very long and splits easily at the first opportunity. I also find it runs out of steam generally at about 6 trusses - long before Rosada, which reliably sets 8+, and needs far more feeding to keep it going. One of my customers of over 30 years got her grandchildren to eat tomatoes with this one and Rosada - now they're always asking her for the 'tomato sweeties'!
Tomato 'Apero' with yacon in foreground.
Apero F1 - (Dobies and Simpsons) A baby cherry plum that has exceptional flavour, although not quite as good as Rosada as not quite enough acidity. It's sweeter than Rosada but without that slight tartness it needs to balance it for supreme flavour. It's not nearly as productive or disease-resistant as Rosada because it has a slightly more compact, less airy habit. It has quite a tough skin and a really dense meaty texture though and this is the only tomato I know which you can freeze, then defrost, and it can still be sliced in half afterwards! Great for a tomato 'Tarte Tatin' in winter.
Blush - I discovered this little beauty for the first time this year - and it will be a permanent fixture from now on! A very beautiful teardrop-shaped, cherry plum striped in glorious sunset colours - it has the most stunning flavour! A wonderful balance of sweet/tart - the moment you bite into it your mouth instantly water.! My Tunnel to Table co-presenter Gerry Kelly was in raptures about it - and he's a Rosada fan too!
Green Envy - another new one this year. An unusual olive green, pear shaped, cherry-plum variety. At first hard to tell when it's ripe because of it's green colour - but when ripe it takes on a slightly yellowish hue and is just slightly softer with a bit of 'give' when very gently squeezed. Sweet and juicy - now a favourite. Sets skin early, so careful watering needed after that or fruit may split.
Classic Medium (Moneymaker size) type
Tomato 'John Baer' - very early, productive & best tasting medium classic type
John Baer - My absolute favourite in this category. non-hybrid (Plants of Distinction) A brilliant discovery in 2011 which I will definitely never be without again! Variable medium to very large round classic type that's not quite decided if it wants to be a beefsteak or a medium classic-sized tomato! It produces both. Very early and cropping well on into the autumn, it is vigorous and disease-resistant both in the ground and in containers. Such a heavy crop in my recycled mayo buckets that I had a job to stop it falling over! (Set 8 trusses even in buckets when well fed with Osmo organic tomato food) seems totally reliable - outstanding performance and superb flavour in our climate! Solid firm middle with no cavity looking more like a beefsteak. Can split if left on the plant too long. Lovely for salads and great cooked as well. A real favourite now.
'Ebony and Ivory' - the contrasting colours of tomatoes Indigo Rose & White Queen
Indigo Rose - Couldn't leave this one out as the inspiration for the Totally Terrific Tomato Festival!(Got this from www.tradewindsfruitstore originally but last year Suttons Seeds had it) I couldn't leave this one out of course, as I was the first person to grow this in Ireland and poss. the British Isles 5 years ago when it was first introduced! The star of the 2012 & 2013 TomatoFests! Really stunning aubergine black - with rich ruby red flesh inside when ripe and the skin develops a 'slatey blue' sheen. Sadly looks aren't everything - even if it is absolutely a stunner! Very average supermarket-type flavour but with a very slight odd hint of liquorice - possibly from the anthocyanins. Also a slightly odd 'rubbery' texture to the fruit. It was bred from the only wild tomato with high levels of cancer fighting anthocyanins in the fruit, so I.R. is higher in these than any other tomato ever bred. Amazingly - since it was bred in the USA - I've found it a very easy to grow, very healthy, vigorous, short-jointed plants that set fruit easily so very productive and it didn't seem at all bothered by the low light levels we experienced in 2012. It was even better in 2013. Sets 8 trusses easily on plants only 2m high! Some of the Eastern European varieties I grew in 2012 only set 2 or 3 trusses very badly on 3m high plants!! It looks absolutely stunning with beefsteak White Queen in a salad, so celeb chefs would love it. It also deepens the colour of a tomato sauce significantly. Don't skin it - that's where the goodies are! Just blitz in a blender before adding to tomato sauces. (I do this with all my tomatoes - life is far too short to skin tomatoes anyway and it's totally unnecessary! Doing so loses valuable nutrients.) It's flavour intensifies on dehydrating and definitely improves although it shrinks quite a lot. A definite candidate for tomato 'sweeties'!
Dr Carolyn Pink - Lipstick pink, large fruited and with a fascinating history! This is said to be cherry type but generally more a medium/classic sized (another almost beefsteak looking one inside) Luscious, lovely flavour - Irish Times gardening correspondent Fionnuala Fallon said it tasted of summer! It's flavour reminds me very much of the furry skinned Red Peach (which is very rare and far more tricky to grow. I grew Red Peach for several years in the late 80's/90's from HDRA/HSL - and again this year) Dr. Carolyn sets fruit far better and is far more disease-resistant. After some detective work - Fionnuala Fallon wrote about this tomato in her great article in the Irish Times magazine of 25th August 2012, which you can read here: http://www.irishtimes.com/life-and-style/homes-and-property/2.770/reds-from-russia-with-love-1.543223
Nyagous - (Plants of Distinction) I grew this for the first time 4 years ago. Large, egg/baseball shaped blackish plum tomato, great flavour. Fairly disease resistant most years, and very productive even in containers. Definitely a good alternative to Black Sea Man. Another schizophrenic tomato that often produces beefsteak-sized fruits as well as medium sized!
Moonglow cut & uncut, Nyagous & John Baer
Moonglow - (Simpsons) Lovely fruity/sweet flavour - luscious almost apricotty texture. Bears large (beefsteak) to medium sized fruits on same plant. Stunning looking. Vigorous and disease-resistant old heritage variety. Incredibly productive - can tend to overcrop and become very heavy. A real favourite! Gorgeous sliced in a mixed variety Caprese salad. Well worth a place in any greenhouse!
Pantano Romanesco - (I save my own seed but it's available now from Klaus Laitenberger Green Veg. Seeds and T&M's) What more can I say about this wonderful tomato that I haven't already said? It's the very best flavoured Italian beefsteak in my opinion (certainly for Irish conditions over the last 20 years) and I've grown most of them. Better flavour than any of the the Costulotos or Marmandes and much easier to keep healthy in our climate. Some of those others look very attractive with their convoluted, pleated odd shapes - but that shape attracts and traps damp which can cause disease. Pantano has a smoother skin and better flavour anyway. Michael Viney mentioned in his Irish Times column in August '11 that he had grown it on my recommendation and that it was every bit as good as I had said. He did also say though, that people ought to be warned early on about it's tendency to make side shoots with extreme enthusiasm - to put it mildly! It is very vigorous and can make extensive unnecessary leaf growth, particularly on the ends of flower trusses, so it needs looking at every couple of days and doesn't want too much rich feeding at first. It's one of the varieties I would never want to be without though. Quite possibly, when perfectly ripe, it might be the last tomato I would want to eat if I was about to leave this world! It's that good! Rich tomato flavour - eat it with some chunks of torn, softly yeilding buffalo mozzarella, a drizzle of good EV olive oil, a fresh grind of black pepper, a scattering of shredded basil leaves and crusty ciabatta and you're instantly transported to the Med.! Or for the very best tomato sandwich ever - a guilty treat with rarely home-made white bread which doesn't mask the heavenly flavour - possibly slightly toasted until 'marshmallowy' and with a slick of home made mayo! (OMG I'm salivating at the thought!) An absolute must for beefsteak lovers!
Ananas Noir - (Plants of Distinction) Really delicious, strong growing and generally healthy beefsteak type. Very large fruits - some really huge 350-500g +! Outside an unprepossessing olivey/greeny/yellow colour - the inside so utterly beautiful you almost want to frame it! It's like eating a rainbow or an impressionist painting - all the colours of a Monet or Turner sunset! It can split a bit around top of some fruits near calyx when fully ripe and then may begin to rot from there if not picked immediately, but many of the older heritage and best-tasting beefsteaks tend to do this. Just one of the little foibles that you don't mind in the least once you've tasted it! The biggest one I've ever grown of this variety reached a weight of 856g or 1lb 15oz - so one can be almost a whole delicious meal!
Neve's Azorean Red topped with Sungold to show scale!
Neve's Azorean Red - (Plants of Distinction) A symphony of exquisite 'lipstick' pinkness! Huge beefsteak type fruits some 500g plus. Can also tend to split around stem end when ripening and must be picked straightaway then or it will quickly rot - but soft, yielding and utterly delicious - particularly with basil and garlic oil in a tomato and mozzarella salad. Well worth the trouble.
Green Cherokee - (tradewindsfruitstore) Extremely rare derivative of Cherokee Purple which I've also grown and is almost as tasty (now available Simpsons). Deep emerald green colour inside/yellowy olive green outside. Great flavour. Huge beefsteak fruits 350g+ - very sweet and beautiful colour - makes a fabulous contrast in Caprese salads. (Is healthier and more vigorous than Tasty Evergreen - which I no longer grow as it isn't nearly as tasty despite the name!)
Black from Tula. Grew this one for the first time this year. Not the most attractive colour! On the outside - a nondescript mahogany reddy-brown with greenish shoulders - it is a beautiful greeny-black inside. It has the same lovely sweet-smoky taste of Black Sea but is a cordon, so it's far easier to grow. It's also far heavier cropping and much more disease-resistant. It cropped well this year in container so I shall grow it in the ground in 2017. The easiest and tastiest of any of the darker coloured beefsteaks and I tried several for the first time this year. We loved it!
Black Beauty. The blackest tomato of all so far! A very unusual and stunning beefsteak with a cherry red heart inside when really ripe, it has the best flavour so far of any of the high anthocyanin tomatoes which I've tried. Not the happiest in a container this year - I shall grow it in 2017 as I think it may be far happier in the ground and is definitely worth trying again.
White Queen - (Also pictured above with Indigo Rose) from Nicky's Nursery seeds. Pleasant, not hugely 'tomatoey' but fruitily sweet and juicy, cream-coloured beefsteak. Interesting and makes an unusual, stunningly beautiful contrast in a mixed tomato salad. Quite healthy and vigorous. RTE gardening expert Dermot O'Neill liked this one a few years ago when he visited my tunnels for RTE Radio's Mooney Show! I grew it first over 25 years ago from HDRA/Heritage Seed Library (now Garden Organic) seed when doing a similar, smaller tomato event I mentioned at the National Botanic Gardens.
Large plum/beefsteak type
Amish Paste - the best for tomato sauce
Amish Paste - (Plants of Distinction) Large plum/beefsteak type. Not for eating fresh in my opinion! A fab cooking tomato - tastes of almost nothing when raw. It has a strange 'pasty'/meaty texture that changes vastly in cooking and then has a great flavour. It only tales a couple of fruits to utterly transform a huge vat of sauce made with any kind of tomatoes. Some sort of alchemy happens it's when cooked! Very productive.
Just in case you're tempted by this one - Sweet Aperitif F1. - (I was given plants of this - so thought I'd just mention it. I tried it 3 years ago as a couple of people had raved about the flavour) The tiny, cherry sized fruit certainly have an intense sweet/acid flavour. I won't be growing it again though, firstly because I found it didn't fit into a mixed tunnel well. It produces huge fan-shaped trusses of tiny flowers (millefiore) which I found attracted botrytis (grey mould) very easily - even in a year which was warmer and drier than usual. The reason possibly is that in the mixed cropping environment of a normal back garden greenhouse or tunnel the atmosphere is usually a bit more humid - because most of us want to grow things like cucumbers etc as well. I think this is a factor often overlooked by seed companies and plant breeders. If you are growing only tomatoes then you could probably keep the atmosphere a lot drier - so perhaps it might not be so much of a problem. Another fault for me was that the fruits had very tough skins which I hate for eating raw - and it also split easily. I personally won't bother growing it again.
I'm sure there are 100's of other varieties that would grow well in our climate that I haven't tried - out of the many 1,000s there are out there. But my criteria are first and foremost taste - then disease resistance, length of cropping time, earliness and ease of growing for back gardeners. They've got to earn their space! I reckon to get 5-6 months of cropping from most of them. I can't think of any other vegetable/fruit that is quite so generous for so long! Some catalogues give information on the number of days the variety takes to start cropping after planting - go for the shortest time as this indicates earliness to ripen - very important in our normal 'summers'! In a poor summer - the ones with the shortest time from planting to cropping should still do better than most others.
Beefsteak tomatoes halved - Giant Belgium, Green Cherokee, John Baer, Persimmon, Ananas, White Queen, Neve's Azorean, Black Sea
Insalata Caprese - with (from bottom) John Baer, Green Cherokee, Ananas Noir
Some of the varieties or other heritage ones may be available from Mads McKeever's Brown Envelope Seeds in Cork - a certified organic seed company. A couple of the varieties I recommend may also be available from Klaus Laitenberger's seed company along with some other interesting varieties of veg. Here's a link - http://greenvegetableseeds.com/shop/
My endlessly versatile Totally Terrific Tomato Sauce recipe, that makes the base for literally dozens of different meals, is on the recipe page of the website. Even if you don't have any tomatoes left in the freezer - you can still make this budget friendly recipe with tinned tomatoes and it tastes great! Served with pasta - it makes a cheap, filling and tasty meal for a family of four, for barely a couple of euros! By the way - life is definitely far too short to skin tomatoes! Unless they have a very 'woody' at bit at the stem end (in which case cut out) - then just throw them into a blender - whizz them and add to the sauce as in my recipe - or use them raw, just as they are, with some crushed garlic for a fabulously fresh tasting pasta sauce. Not skinning means you retain all the nutrients which are mostly either in, or just under, the skin, although cooking with oil in the sauce actually releases more of the important tomato phytonutrient lycopene, which has numerous health benefits.
Urgent message for all fans of Rosada F1Tomato!
I'm repeating this plea! Ask for Rosada please even though it's currently not available. Otherwise we will lose it forever!
In Jan. 2015 I was speaking to Simpsons Seeds as I was having a slight problem with their website order. During our chat they told me that as from 2016 the scrumptious Rosada F1 cherry/plum tomato would no longer be available! Their supplier >wholesaler>breeder says that not enough of this wonderful little tomato is being sold. That is absolutely tragic! As many of you know, I think that this tomato is without doubt the very best cherry plum ever - and I've been growing tomatoes organically, both in my back garden and then on a larger scale commercially, for over 40 years now. I've tried literally hundreds of varieties over the years, trying to find better ones each year. There are far too many new patented varieties available at the moment - and very few that I would consider good enough to ever bother with again!
I don't think that any other tomato comes anywhere near either Rosada's fabulous flavour, massive crop (over 70 tomatoes on just one 3 branched lower truss in a 10 litre pot - setting 8 trusses! 23 trusses when grown in my own invention - candelabra-style growing!) it'sgreatdisease resistance, good-natured ease of growing, remarkable resistance to splitting, or versatility in the kitchen, whether it's for eating fresh in salads, freezing, dehydrating or cooking. It's the very best tomato for beginners - I always recommended it if asked to suggest just one variety. All children love it too - one customer's grandchildren keep asking when she'll have the 'tomato sweeties' again! (And I just can't stop eating the semi-dehydrated ones straight out of the freezer!)
It's an F1 hybrid (which doesn't mean that it's a GMO - something that could never potentially occur in nature!) F1 just means that it's a very specific cross between two known parents, done in isolation from other varieties, to ensure that it comes true from seed.That being so you will not be able to save seed from it and get the same result! Or if you do - you will possibly get seed, but you'll probably end up with a lot of mongrels - many of which may be no good - believe me - I've tried it! Producing an F1 hybrid is naturally a more expensive process than producing an open pollinated variety - so if it doesn't sell well enough - then the powerful commercial interests that now control most of the global seed industry just won't bother with it. Profit from their patents is their main criteria for selection!
In general I favour non-F1 hybrids, as I save a lot of my own seed - but this tomato is an absolutely outstanding exception.
THIS TOMATO REALLY IS WORTH SAVING - PEOPLE POWER COULD DO IT! ASK FOR IT EVEN IF IT'S NOT IN THE CATALOGUES - WE MAY BE ABLE TO GET IT BACK ON SALE IF WE DO!
January contents: A good time to finish winter pruning......Bare-root benefits.....There's still just time to order bare-root fruit trees, bushes and canes for mail order delivery before March.....Which apple varieties are good in a small garden?....The importance of choosing the right root-stock....Other fruit jobs to do now.....There's always some kind of fruit suitable for growing somewhere in any garden!
Pruning pays off if you want productive peaches
185 g peach in July - I can't wait for summer to taste these luscious beauties again!
A good crop of peaches in late July
I though that showing you a picture of some juicy peaches might encourage you to try growing some this year! Happily avoiding the unpredictable weather - I'm hoping to find time to finish pruning my polytunnel peaches in the next week before the fruit buds start to swell - it's so easy to knock them off then and lose fruit as a consequence.I won't be pruning any other stone fruit like plums or cherries outside yetthough, even if the weather is dry - as that risks encouraging 'silver leaf' disease.Most stone fruits should always be pruned only if absolutely necessary, if a branch has broken, or for shaping the branch system in their early years - and then only when the sap is rising and growth has started in the spring. Most fruit trees undercover can be pruned at pretty much any time of year in my experience - although peaches and apricots flower early so it's best to do this before the buds start to swell. As the pruning methods in most fruit books apply to greenhouses with lovely walls or to traditional bush shaped trees - I had to invent my own method for growing peaches in a polytunnel!
Like many of the things I do - my method of peach pruning is just a little unorthodox but it works very well for me and I get huge crops!The peach pictured here is pruned as a rough fan/bush shape - which reduces the height, leaving some productive younger green shoots lower down that will fruit this year. It's not a traditional way to prune peaches - but I find it easier and it's not too time-consuming. The shoots don't need 'tying in' to supports as they would if it was strictly wall trained - and in fact it's far more productive than a wall trained tree would be! Being planted about 60cm out from the tunnel wall means there's space for the slightly bushier form while still retaining fairly good air circulation. If your tree hasn't been pruned for a few years and has become a mess of old wood, then you may have to take a lot off now to encourage shoots to form lower down the tree. Peaches will do this quite readily and will often produce lovely young shoots even from the trunk. If you don't take off most of the older wood the tree will put all it's energy into the topmost branches and this just makes the problem even worse - so you have to be brave and harden your heart!
Nectarines and peaches are pruned slightly differently to plums and cherries. As they always fruit most prolifically on the previous year's (green) wood, they need a certain amount of the older wood pruned out each year to stop them getting too big, particularly in the tunnel, to avoid them bursting out of the polythene top and also to promote younger fruiting growth, leaving enough well-spaced young growth on which they will fruit this year. You also need to be able to reach them! If you don't do this they soon become an unmanageable, crowded and unproductive mess. It's sometimes difficult to take out enough wood in summer though, so I often need to take out more at this time of year, particularly on the older trees. Then I can see exactly what I'm doing because the trees are naked, with no leaves and the young, greener growth formed last summer is much easier to see. They start into growth much sooner inside and already the fatter and rounder fruit buds are easily distinguishable from the growth buds which are slimmer and more pointed. Trees can quite easily put on over a metre of growth during the summer - so controlling them is vital. Pruning the top growth also naturally reduces further root growth correspondingly, which is a good thing as otherwise they can rob nutrients and water from crops growing in the raised beds near to their root area. The roots of any healthy tree will always extend over an area of at least roughly three times the height of the tree. After looking at them carefully, take out some of the older branches back to a point just abovewhere some new green growth which the tree made last summer appeared - bearing in mind the height you want. Later on in the summer, just after fruiting, prune out some of this year's longer new growths in order to keep them a manageable size and promote good air circulation.
My trees are never a pretty sight after pruning - but you have to be both brave and even a little brutal sometimes! The trees look so pretty in early spring, when they're adorned with their pink blossoms, that it's tempting to leave the flowering branches and not cut them off, but I know if I that if I don't prune properly now, then the fruit in the summer will be far smaller, too crowded and not nearly as good, sometimes even dropping off because the tree simply can't cope with developing so many. One has to harden one's heart. And don't be tempted either to leave long branches on trees that you've just planted - as this forces the poor tree to try to support that growth before it has properly developed it's roots - and this may well kill it. A friend of mine did this a few years ago despite my warnings - as they thought they might get fruit quicker. They didn't - it killed the tree! Prune trees right back after planting, to just two or three lower buds on each branch, pointing in the direction you want them to grow. New green growth will come from those in it's first year. It will fruit on those next year and you will reap the benefits of having a little patience! Each year after fruiting - cut them back again to establish a nice young branch system in whatever shape you like. Then go over them again in winter and just tidy up. Last year, yet again each of my fan/bush trees at the north end of my tunnel produced over two hundred perfect large peaches each, and we've been enjoying the frozen fruit as sorbets, smoothies etc. all winter. There is nothing like sinking your teeth into that first luscious, aromatic fruit!
For the last few years, both Aldi and Lidl have had bare-root trees available really cheaply sometime over the next couple of months. That's where I got mine - for a fiver each - one of the best investments I've ever made! Although one was labelled 'Peach' and the other 'Nectarine' - they both turned out to be un-named varieties of peaches. But happily for me - serendipity was at work! One is an early variety and the other is a later one - so they spread the crop very nicely and we have fresh peaches for around two and a half months in summer, with masses to freeze! Named peaches are generally available in garden centres - but they are much more expensive as they will be container grown - often in peat compost, which I hate. Peat is not a natural growing medium for peaches! If you have the room for a peach they're far easier to grow under cover in a tunnel or greenhouse as not only can you always keep them pruned to the size you want but they don't get peach leaf curl disease under cover. This is caused by rain washing the disease spores down into the buds before they break in early spring if theyy;'re outside. My peaches are planted at the north end of my larger tunnel, where they don't shade anything. They are roughly fan-trained over an area of 15 ft/4 metres overall, with a height of about the same, or slightly less. At their feet in a narrow bed about 3ft/1 metre depth I plant perennial herbs like various thymes, alpine strawberries, a few early bulbs and lots of scented single flowers to attract beneficial insects and pollinators. This works well for me.
It's a good time to finish winter pruning both in the polytunnel and outside it ground is dry enough to walk on.
Having said that - if your ground is wet then you'd be better staying off the ground around any fruit trees, or indeed anywhere else, until it dries up a bit! If you don't you will compact the soil and cause permanent damage, which then leads to drainage problems. Poor drainage can also then have a 'knock' on' effect' on nutrient uptake - leading to a condition called 'bitter pit' - which is a symptom of poor calcium uptake in apples and other disease problems. All fruit really hates bad drainage. If the weather turns drier over the next couple of weeks and the soil dries up a bit I'll do the pruning of the apples in the new orchard. If you have polytunnel fruit though - this is a great time to prune it as growth will be starting again soon and if trees are pruned properly you can look forward to a summer of luscious fruit!
I usually prefer to plant bare-root trees, whatever I'm planting, if I can get the varieties I want with bare roots - I feel that they establish and adjust to your soil far better. Container-grown trees in peat composts can take much longer to establish as their roots as the can be reluctant to explore the world outside their pot - even if you loosen some of the outer roots a little! Peaches aren't that fussy about soil but they do like it well drained, with a pH of about 6.5 to 7. Scatter a couple of handfuls of bonemeal and calcified seaweed over the planting area of about 2 sq. metres, these will supply phosphate, slow release calcium and other trace elements. If your soil is poor and lacking in humus and organic matter, and possibly compacted - that will mean it's also low in biological activity, so it could benefit from adding one of the beneficial micorrhizal granules available in sachets now from garden centres. These form a fungal network which help roots to establish a symbiotic uptake of nutrients quickly, and this will increase over the years. Fork all of these in really well and evenly when preparing the soil and scatter some of the granules over the actual roots as well. I also fork in a light dressing of good well rotted, crumbly compost before planting - not tons of nitrogen-rich manure which would promote too much soft, sappy growth. If you don't have crumbly old home made compost, a bucket of a good organic peat free potting compost will do the same job. I know that seems extravagant - but just think how much even non-organic peaches cost each - and then you'll see it's worth every penny! Just a few peaches will repay the cost of the compost at the price they were last year! Last year organic ones - if you could get them- were over a euro each! Just 12 peaches pays for a whole bag of the best organic peat free compost! (I use the peat-free certified organic potting compost from Klasmann which is excellent). Don't use a peat compost as this will not do the same job and is completely sterile, containing no vital microbial life, and eventually clogs the soil too.
The addition of organic compost opens up the structure of the soil, makes it more 'root friendly' and introduces important microbial life, which will adapt itself gradually to the type of tree which is grown there. All types of plants have specific kinds of microbes that like to live symbiotically with the roots of that particular plant - and if you start them off at the right pH, with some compost to feed on at first - they will soon multiply and form a huge living community around the root structure - supplying the plant with the vital nutrients it needs from the soil. A symbiotic relationship is a bit like a 'middle man'/or a sort of 'you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours' kind of thing! The plant makes root exudates - sugars which feed the microbes - and then in return all the microbes make the nutrients in the soil available to the plants roots - in a form that they can absorb. Basically it is pretty much the same way as our digestion works - so the soil acts a bit like the plant's stomach if you like - as I've explained before. Every year after planting, a light scattering of compost and a couple of handfuls of seaweed meal (for potash and trace elements) will keep them happy and busy, but not make the tree not too vigorous.
There's still just time to order bare-root fruit trees, bushes and canes for mail order delivery before March
The sooner you do this the better if you're planning on getting any - you don't want to be right at the back of the queue just getting the dregs of what's left at the end of the planting season. If you're looking for a new raspberry - then I can thoroughly recommend the autumn variety Joan J. It's definitely the best tasting variety yet. I grew it in pots in the polytunnel last year and it fruited from June until almost Christmas. "An autumn raspberry fruiting in June" I hear you say? Yes - if you prune them MY way! Many people recommend pruning them right back after they've finished fruiting in late winter - but I always leave about half of the canes that formed and fruited in the previous autumn un-pruned. These then fruit early the following year - after which I prune them right down to the ground. Those will then form new canes which will fruit slightly later in the autumn than the new canes which grew up from those pruned in winter - thereby spreading their season even more and giving you a continuous crop for much of the summer and autumn. It doesn't harm the plants at all pruning this way, as autumn varieties are very vigorous anyway. I just feed, mulch and water them well. Like so many of the tricks I've learned over the years - I discovered this one literally quite by accident - by not getting round to pruning at the accepted 'right time' - due to an accident! All autumn raspberries will do this if pruned this way - but if I only grew one raspberry variety - it would be Joan J. It has enormous fruits which aren't just delicious fresh but which also freeze incredibly well.
Which apple varieties are good in a small garden?
Someone asked me recently to suggest two apple varieties which would be suitable for a small garden, which would fruit reliably early in the season, are good freshly picked and would then make apple juice for freezing. 'Discovery' is an excellent and productive early season apple that ripens through September, it's crisp, sweet and has very pink-tinted flesh compared to many apples. The internal colour indicates that it's full of healthy antioxidants too. Depending on the season's weather and where it's planted - the apples that are in full sun always colour best. Crisply delicious when just picked, it doesn't keep for more than a couple of weeks or so once it's ripe, but it does make a delicious pale pink apple juice - particularly when combined with the early cooker 'Grenadier' which ripens at the same time - in early/mid Sept. We don't make juice here any more as juicing discards the flesh of the fruit, wasting many healthy nutrients like antioxidant phytochemicals & vital gut- healthy fibre. This also means that juice is very high in quickly available sugars too - which are not good for us. Eating whole fruit is better for us - so we tend to make 'slushies here now - which are our half-frozen smoothies using whole fruits blitzed in the Nutriblender and diluted with a little spring water. These are delicious and thirst-quenching on a warm early autumn day!
As Discovery also flowers at the same time, being from the same pollination group, they make very good partners in a small garden. Grenadier is a terrific early cooking apple with plenty of sweet/acid flavour - good for all sorts of cooking uses in Sept. and Oct. If you store either of these apples after that they tend to lose their flavour and acidity though, becoming 'woolly', which affects their flavour, so the two are ideally matched. Both varieties are widely available and are good, reliable and disease-resistant. If you have room for three trees in your garden and would like a long keeping cooker - then they also make perfect partners for Bramley's Seedling. This apple is what is known as a 'triploid' - meaning that it has no good pollen of it's own, so therefore it needs two good pollination partners which reliably flower at the same time.Discovery and Grenadier partner it perfectly - so it's a productively fruiting 'menage a trois' if you like!
If you only have room for one apple, then an offspring of Discovery - a result of a cross with an apple called Kent which was bred more recently in 1975, is a really good apple called Red Devil. It's disease resistant, incredibly productive and self-fertile, in flowering group 3, so doesn't need a pollinator partner nearby. If you do have other apple trees nearby though, it's also a very good pollinator, and will pollinate trees in flowering groups 2 and 4 - which overlap their flowering time with group 3 trees to a certain extent. A delicious apple, it stays lovely and crisp for 3 months in my apple store, and it's very high in polyphenol antioxidants which have many health benefits. Unlike Discovery, it is picked a little later in early October depending on the season - but will keep until Christmas or beyond - which I find more useful in an apple as there are always plenty of September ripening apples around - but they become more scarce after October. Last week I chose a couple from my apple store to grate into a smoothie - it was just slightly less crisp - but still juicy and delicious and full of colourful antioxidants as you can see here from the colour of the flesh of one I cut in half to remove the pips!
If you would prefer a long-keeping eating apple and have room for three trees - then I would recommend 'Ashmead's Kernal' - a healthy, disease-resistant and very productive apple, which is at it's very best naturally stored from mid-December until April It's not an apple which many people know as it's almost never available to buy in garden centres or nurseries - but it's a very aromatic, crisply mouth-watering and nutty tasting apple, with a good sweet/acid balance which regularly beats the more famous Cox's Orange Pippin in taste tests and is considered to be one of the highest quality late dessert apples. It flowers in pollination group 4 - so it overlaps it's flowering time with Red Devil which provides good pollination for it most years.
This late-keeping, 300-year-old russet apple variety is my favourite. Although it's often selected in tasting competitions as better-tasting than Cox’s Orange Pippin - unlike Cox it's scab-resistant and far more tolerant of our damp Irish climate. Another heavy-cropping ‘triploid’ cultivar, Ashmead’s also needs two other apple trees nearby which will pollinate it but this is not normally a problem in urban gardens. It grows well on the M26 dwarfing rootstock, reaching a size of 3m wide and high on maturity. Picked in mid-October, it keeps really well until April in cold storage. It's useful for cooking from October and later on in December it makes a delicious dessert apple with a distinctive ‘pear drop’ flavour, which is perfect with a Christmas cheeseboard. It's currently available from Johnstown Garden Centre and online.
We're now eating the stored Ashmead's which we picked in late October and every time I bite into one of them, I thank old Dr. Ashmead of Gloucester who raised it around 1700! My rather unconventional apple store keeps these really well. It's an old broken freezer which I re-purposed and it has several drawers which I can pull out to inspect the apples daily for any that may be deteriorating. It also has perfect insulation, which keeps out either heat or severe cold, and I can vary the humidity by adjusting the door opening slightly. The apples are kept in a sort of natural suspended animation, so while still alive, they go on just quietly breathing and developing their flavour a lot more more slowly than they would otherwise have done if they'd been left on the tree. This means they will keep for several months, staying crisp and retaining all of their healthy nutrients.
I often wonder what dear old Dr. Ashmead would think of my apple store? Or if he could possibly have imagined that people in the 21st century might still be enjoying his wonderful apple and writing about how HE was the person who bred it? My apple store is not just full of deliciously healthy, pure delights - it's also like having a treasure chest full of fascinating stories and rich social history!
The importance of choosing the right root-stock
Whatever apples you plant though - make sure that they are on an M26 or MM106 semi-dwarfing root stock, which are by far the healthiest and best for a wide range of soils and climates but do particularly well here in Ireland. I don't find the more dwarfing ones good here on my heavy clay soil. They need perfect conditions which few of us have - and in addition - with climate change and wetter weather, fruit trees need to be far more resilient to continue to crop well. That's the last thing I would call the dwarfing root stocks! Also ensure that the graft union (the very swollen knobbly looking bit in the lower bit of the stem) is at least 4 ins or 10 cm above the surface of the compost they are growing in if they are in containers - otherwise the 'scion' (that's the variety of apple that's grafted onto the root stock) could possibly root past the joint and you will lose the dwarfing effect of the root stock. I see so many trees on sale in garden centres that are badly potted through ignorance - far too deeply! Some garden centres and nurseries still have bare root trees at this time of year though - and they're worth seeking out. You may get one or two apples this year on container grown trees - but in the long run bare root trees planted now will establish much better and be far more productive over time. Make sure that you plant bare root trees with the graft union again roughly 4ins/10cm above the soil surface, and with rainfall increasing due to climate change, planting on a very slight mound with added pea gravel or grit is a good idea. The planting area will always settle and sink a bit as it does so - and you don't want to create a badly drained 'sump'! Remember - a fruit tree is a long term investment for the future - to get a return you need to plant it well!
When I was talking about fruit varieties a couple of months ago I forgot to mention a truly wonderful plum - 'Belle de Louvain'. It's a fantastic variety - and is the one that's used to make those gorgeous big fat prunes in Belgium. It's available from a few nurseries - although it may not be on their general list and you may have to ask for it specifically. I got mine from Deacons about 25 years ago - looking it up yesterday I see it's not on their main website but they do have it listed if you do a search for it. A 'dual purpose' plum - it's really delicious and juicy as a desert plum for eating fresh when perfectly ripe (despite what was said on one gardening website! - I wonder if they've actually grown it?) - and for cooking there's absolutely nothing to equal it! It has a fantastic rich flavour and deep purple/black colour - which indicates how rich it must be rich in all sorts ofhealthy antioxidant polyphenols. The other good thing about it is that it's fairly self-pollinating and will set fruit even without another tree close by - but 'Victoria' would be a good partnerif you have room to give it some company. It does well on less than ideal soils - hence it's grown very well on my heavy Meath clay. It also freezes incredibly well - just thrown into carrier bags without stoning and freeze them whole. I'm sure it would bottle well too - although I haven't tried - as the fruit stays quite firm when cooked. An absolute paragon of a plum! The major problem here is the destructive bullfinches eating the flower buds in late winter - something they're particularly fond of doing! Beautiful but very destructive little vandals they are! I haven't seen too many around this year yet - just one or two so far - I'm hoping they won't do their usual amount of damage. When the fruit is ripening - then badgers and foxes are the main problem! Anything within 'labrador standing on it's hind legs height' reach is progressively stolen over a couple of weeks as they gradually ripen! Beautiful and increasingly rare vandals both - about which I naturally have very ambivalent feelings - plums are one of my favourite fruits - but I don't mind losing a few if I have plenty! This year I'm going to try drying some if I have enough - they'll make nice healthy guilt free snacks!
I have some beautiful photos of 'Belle de Louvain' on the tree which I took a few years ago - but as my scanner's not working - I took some out of the freezer to show you instead. I'll gently stew them in very little water with a small amount of sugar and they'll be eaten when cold with a little creme fraiche or kefir soft 'cheese' - absolute heaven! I'm looking forward to supper!
Other fruit jobs to do now
This week I'll be covering some of my rhubarb crowns with straw and old dustbins - or very large pots - the first fresh fruit of the year is always at it's most delicious when forced and delicately pink. I would dearly love some of those gorgeous terracotta forcing pots but they are so expensive! Perhaps if I ever win the lottery! I'm also going to dry more of my seedless grapes this year - I haven't tried the black ones yet. We're still eating a few physalis (Cape gooseberries/golden berries) every day - picked in November and stored in the fridge, only one or two have gone off. They keep for ages in their little paper cases and are rich in Vit C and other nutrients like lutein which we all need at this time of year.
If you haven't done so already, then untie and lower all grape rodsnow to horizontal, in order to ensure that the sap rises evenly to supply each breaking fruit bud along the stem. If you don't do this the buds at the top will get the most sap and some nearer to the base may not develop at all. Grapes in pots or tubs can be laid on their sides for a few weeks for the same reason. And if you haven't pruned them yet - it's too late, as the sap will start to rise rapidly in the next week or so. If you prune them now - it will be just like turning on a tap! The sap will just pour out of the cuts, weakening or possibly even killing the vine. Don't despair if you haven't pruned - you can rub out any buds you don't want when they start to grow later on without any damage to the plant at all - but it's much better to prune them at the right time, as soon as the leaves fall in Nov/Dec. - well before the beginning of Jan. I'm going to dehydrate even more of my seedless grapes this year - I haven't tried the black ones yet. I do wish that the squirrels, mice etc. didn't eat all my nuts - then I'd have even healthier, more balanced homegrown snacks!
Strawberry plants in pots for forcing early need to come into the tunnel now. If you don't have any of last year's runners in pots ready for doing this - you can dig a couple of old plants up with a good root ball and pot them up, giving them a feed when they start to show some new growth. After doing this they will need to be thrown away though - as it will weaken them, but it will be nice to have a few early strawberries. Remember to pot up some fresh runners for doing this later on in the year. Or plant some of the wonderful variety Albion - an ever-bearing variety which fruits in my polytunnel from May until November.
One thing I must do is to source some more barrels or tubs for collecting rainwater. Fruit and veg are very thirsty - particularly soft fruit - and need plenty of water in the summer. I've been saving rainwater for years as all plants actually prefer it - not just the low pH lovers like blueberries and lemons. No plant evolved to drink chlorinated tap water! Water is becoming more of a worry for all of us with increasingly unpredictable weather patterns. It's always been a problem for us here in the summer anyway as we're on the end of the line coming from a small local reservoir - so we're always the first to go and the last to get our mains water back if there's a shortage. So I always need a back up - particularly for the tunnels. Water is very valuable - many people waste huge amounts because they take it so much for granted - so to be honest I wouldn't have any objection to our water being metered - as long as we're only paying for what we use rather than a flat charge - one size fits all - approach. It would encourage water conservation and far less waste. I don't want to pay for what's wasted by leaks or my neighbours washing cars and watering lawns in the height of summer - then forgetting to turn their taps off! There's nothing more infuriating than seeing water actually running down the road from neighbours hosepipes when there's nothing coming out of our taps!! Quite apart from any environmental considerations!
There's always some kind of fruit suitable for growing somewhere in any garden!
Fresh fruit is always expensive to buy in the shops - particularly soft fruit - and it's really easy to grow yourself with very little trouble. Even in the smallest garden, or on a balcony, there's room for some somewhere - you can train all sorts of fruit against walls or fences - no matter which way they face - as long as they've got good light. For instance an apple or pear espalier or fan could produce at least 10-12 kg of fruit a year once established and there are many varieties that will grow even on a north facing wall. Any good book or catalogue will tell you which ones are most suitable for difficult places.
If you don't have a garden - many fruits will even grow in containers. For the price of just a couple of punnets of fruit - you could buy plants that will produce delicious and ever increasing crops for years! I Two of the most productive would be perpetual strawberries (of which my favourite is Albion - from Ken Muir's Nursery, and also Cape Gooseberries which you can grow cheaply from seed yourself. Both are happy in containers, easy to grow and full of healthy nutrients. So often the things we're told are good for us are hard work or hugely expensive - but getting some of your five a day is temptingly easy if you can just go and pick it outside the back door!
Instead of expensive and soil-fussy blueberries - blackberries are incredibly easy to grow - even in containers, not fussy about soil and are incredibly productive. They just don't have a massively funded 'Blackberry Council' to promote them like blueberries do! Although their antioxidant properties are almost as good - and you can afford to eat far more of them if you grow them yourself. We eat them every day here, they fill in all the air pockets in the freezer nicely in their large bags, thereby save energy too! How's that for super fast - super healthy, climate-friendly takeaway food? Wonderful that something so easy can be so good for us - and much fresher, far more nutritious and far cheaper when it's grown organically in your own garden. Unlike the chemically-grown, plastic wrapped and plastic tasting junk that's mostly available in shops - after travelling countless carbon-guzzling air miles across the globe at this time of year!
Why not make this the year you grow some of your own fruit. Or if you already do - then maybe try a new type of fruit you haven't grown before? - Then you'll be able to look forward to harvesting your own super-fresh, properly ripe, juicy deliciousness - free from any pesticides and fungicides! Just the way that Nature provided them for us to eat!
Thank you so much to all the people who have taken the time to write and thank me for my work - or thanked me on Twitter.I really enjoy sharing my original ideas and 40 years experience of growing and cooking my own organic food with you. It's most satisfying and naturally also very complimentary if others find "inspiration" in my work......But if you do happen to copy any of my material, or repeat it in any way online - I would appreciate it very much if you would please mention that it originally came from me, as it's the result of many years of hard work. Thank you.
January contents:Seed orders are the main priority right now.....Fancy trying something new? Why not try growing some Oca this year?.....It pays to spend some time NOW making a really good cropping plan.....Another job to do now is to organise your seed sowing equipment....Recycling saves money!....A home made cold frame is very useful if you don't have a greenhouse or polytunnel.....Would you like to enjoy some 'extra early' potatoes for Easter?....Other jobs.
One of the best things about gardening is that every single year you get a chance to make a really fresh start - full of optimism that this will definitely be the best year ever! It doesn't always go to plan though - as my recent short hospital visit and then consequent influenza proved! So apologies for this being a little later than usual - but luckily this is a quiet time of year and I'm just starting to catch up now!
One of the nice things about celebrating New Year at the winter solstice as I do - is that you get to wish everyone Happy New Year twice!! So for the second time -I would like to wish you all a belated VERY HAPPY AND SUCCESSFUL NEW GROWING YEAR - MAY ALL YOUR PUMPKINS BE PERFECT, YOUR LETTUCES LUSCIOUS, YOUR CABBAGES COLOSSAL, YOUR POTATOES AND PUMPKINS PROLIFIC AND YOUR TOMATOES THE TOTALLY TASTIEST EVER!!
At the moment - there isn't much that can usefully be done outside
Now's the time to get on with inside jobs while you have the spare time - there won't be too much of that come March! If you try to do anything that involves walking on your garden soil - you will actually be doing more harm than good by compacting and squashing the air out of it. If you have heavy clay like mine - when it dries out it will turn into concrete! I've often been tempted to make bricks or a cobb house out of it - and I have in fact made small pots just to prove it! So stick to the paths if you need to do things! If you're growing in the traditional way on the flat - and you have to step onto the soil to harvest things like brassicas (cabbage family) and leeks - then get a wide plank to walk on in order to spread your weight a bit. This will minimize damage to the soil as far as possible. If you grow in raised beds - as I do - they're great because you can always work from the path without compacting soil at all. This is far better for all the soil life that actually needs air too. Raised beds are also a lot easier on the back, which does make life easier at this time of year.The well known rule is - if soil sticks to your boots and if you sink into it - then it's far too wet to work -so stay off it! Get on with some jobs you can do inside in the warm instead, like getting all your seed sowing kit ready, cleaning seed trays and pots, and ordering the last of your seeds if you haven't already done that - this will be a real help when the spring rush of jobs arrives! It's closer than you think - so it's really time to get on the starting blocks and be ready for action!
Seed orders are the main priority right now
If you haven't already done your seed orders - before you order any, just take an hour or so to organise your existing stock. Then you will know exactly what you already have and what you need more of. I’ve tried several methods over the years - but the one I find best is to put them into a sort of filing system - sorting them into groups: roots, brassicas, peas and beans, spinach, lettuces, salad mixes and oriental leaves, tomatoes and aubergines, squashes and pumpkins, herbs, lettuces, other miscellaneous etc. - in a similar way to how you would plan your rotations. I stand them up in large recycled fruit punnets or deep plastic meat containers, with a large cardboard label at the front of each punnet. This keeps them all together and makes each vegetable group or packet of seeds easy to find quickly.
Fancy trying something new - why not try growing some Oca this year?
They're available from Real Seeds now - but as they're in short supply - order as soon as possible. They're a delicious member of the sorrel family - sort of 'lemony/artichokey' flavoured - a good occasional potato alternative with fish and no problems other than rather ambitious territorial tendencies. They make a nice clump of the large tubers you can see pictured here. They also form masses of small tubers wherever the stems touch the ground - so just like Jerusalem artichokes - once you have them, believe me you'll always have them! I can't understand why they're apparently so rare, I have to wee them out in my veg garden now! I grew them a few years ago as a 'break crop' in the tunnel rotations and they really enjoyed it in there. I'm now weeding them out all the time in there too - but I can usually dig them up and give them away to grateful recipients! As they don't really tend to bulk up their tubers in late autumn though - it's best to grow them where they can be easily protected from frost. They're not too fond of containers either - they're much happier in the ground like most things. Although having said that - last year I tried planting them at the bottom of a container and then earthing them up as they grew. As they seem to form their tubers along subsequent stems - this worked well.
One thing I haven't seen mentioned in any magazine articles or books though, is that being a member of the sorrel family, they are quite high in oxalic acid - which accounts for the sharp lemony flavour of both the tubers and the pretty clover shaped leaves, which also use sparingly in salads. So rather than eating them daily, it's best to have them as an occasional treat, or you might end up with kidney stones if you're susceptible! There is some research currently being done into low oxalic acid varieties - but at the moment I definitely wouldn't think of them as a suitable everyday alternative to potatoes! We don't need to eat potatoes everyday either. There are plenty of lower carbohydrate alternatives that are equally as delicious - Jerusalem artichokes for one - and they are incredibly healthy for your gut - being full of pre-biotic Inulin which encourages your gut bacteria to multiply.
When you've organised your seeds - you can then get on with ordering those you need as quicklyas possible - many of the new or popular varieties will sell out quickly. Definitely do it by the end of this month if you don't want to be disappointed. Many of the seed companies also give a discounts for ordering early. Having my seeds organised in the way I've described is something I've found really useful over the years as it means I can keep checking my stock of seeds as I'm ordering. This stops me either duplicating or ordering too much. If you're anything like me, the seed catalogues all end up dog eared and marked everywhere with all the things I'd like to try. I then go through what I've already got - and after a major reality check (I don't have three gardeners - only me!) I then probably only order half or less of what I've actually marked in the catalogue. Do compare prices too - it's amazing the huge variations for exactly the seeds in different catalogues. Approx. 2 euros in just one case for seeds of a particular tomato, 'Rosada F1', one of my standard cherry varieties (last year they were £3.49 for 6 seeds with one company as against £1.80 for 8 seeds with another. It's definitely well worth making the effort in these cost conscious days - and this month you have time to shop around! By the way, while on the subject, Rosada is currently still available from a couple of seed companies - possibly last year's seed but it is foil packed so will last for years. Order your seed potatoes too - then you can get them well sprouted which gives them more of a head start when planting.
It pays to spend some time NOW making a really good cropping plan
This also helps to give you an idea of how much seed you may need - so it's another job worth spending an hour or two on now. Aminimum four-course rotation in the vegetable garden is vital in order to avoid the build up of pests and diseases, depletion of nutrients and also to improve soil . If you do a 'scale' plan of your veg plot on graph paper - doing that will also give you a rough idea of how much seed you will need for the amount of any particular crop you want to grow. This may seem a bit OCD to some people, but it's actually very useful. If you only do it once really well, then you'll never have to do it in this detailed way again, as you can look at it each year and just move your crops around within the same rotation. Most seed packets will give you a rough idea of how much seed you will need per so many feet or metres of row, although I find they usually tend to overestimate how much you'll need - naturally - they want to sell seed! And of course they also say "sow the seed into the ground......and then thin....." (thereby wasting seed!) Many beginners take this as gospel - sowing ALL the seed in a row - which often then gets wiped out by slugs before the gardener even got to see the seed leaves! As I sow most of my stuff in modules of peat-free compost now, I find I need far less seed of most things - particularly lettuces etc. This is because I rarely lose anything to slugs or weather, because seedlings aren't planted out until they're big enough to be far more resistant to the odd nibble from any pests. The spacings for peas and beans do actually work out roughly the same as that mentioned on the packets. I love looking back over all the plans I made over the years, and remembering particular crops I grew. I have most of my plans going back to the beginning of this garden here well over thirty years ago now, along with a huge master plan of the entire garden. Dreams on paper! Some happened - one or two others didn't. Trying to replicate the large garden where I grew up was never really going to happen without extra help - but I've loved trying to nevertheless! Many disasters happened when I was just learning - but many successes too. The successes always spurred me on each year to do better. Experience is the best teacher - and it's very true that you always learn far more from your mistakes!
Another job to do now is to organise your seed sowing equipment.
Doing this while you have plenty of time is really useful and will pay off in terms of both time and money saved later. As you're filling your recycling bin - have a look to see what could possibly be used as seed trays, pots, seed labels etc. - you'll be amazed at how much money you can save. There are very few things normally regarded as 'waste' that can't be made use of for another job. It's far better than continually buying everything new which uses carbon intensive and increasingly scarce resources. I always have huge bags full of various plastic containers like yogurt or cream cartons - particularly those large 500g sized yogurt pots which are great for sowing peas and beans in. They save a lot of money as you don't have to buy expensive pots from garden or DIY shops. If you're careful and keep them in the dark when not in use so they don't degrade in the light - you can use them for years. I've still got some from a brand of yogurt my mother used to like - and she passed away 16 years ago! If you need module trays, you can buy large amounts of different sizes in farm or horticultural growers supply shops in most areas. They will often split them and tape together lots of a dozen or so too, as they know that home gardeners are a growing market. The most useful size I think is the small tray of 12 x 1in/2-3cm modules. I sow most leafy things direct into these and they stay in those until planting-out time. I bought a huge box of 200 years ago, as that's the only way I could buy them at the time! They've actually made great presents for gardening friends - perhaps along with some precious, home-saved seed of a rare variety of something. Loo rolls of course make great long modules for things like sweet peas and even carrots or parsnips. I start off my early ones in these every year, as the soil is never warm enough for their germination at the end of January or early February, and you can plant out nice neat rows when the time comes - which is very satisfying..
Recycling saves money!
And that means - more money to spend on seeds! I have to make a confession here! - I AM that odd person who sidles up to strangers in garden centres and DIY shops just as they're looking at things like expensive biodegradable peat pots - suggesting that they don't waste their money on something that will only be of use once and encourages the destruction of our priceless, carbon-capturing bogs! I have to say the reaction is always good - I've never been told to mind my own business, but there will no doubt be a first time one of these days!! After all - who is averse to saving a bit of money - particularly at this time of year? I've actually made one or two really good friends that way too - gardeners are usually very friendly folk and naturally have a lot in common to chat about. A useful thing that you can buy from The Organic Gardening Catalogue UK (Garden Organic) and use for years is a small wooden paper 'pot former' in two sizes. These enable you to make your own biodegradable pots from old newspapers. It's quite fiddly and time consuming though - a bit like the gardener's equivalent of Origami - fun but not strictly necessary if you've already got lots of recycled containers. Kids enjoy doing it though - and it's a good way to get them into gardening - which is never a bad thing! I also recycle any plastic containers which could be remotely useful for growing things - they can last for years if you store them away from light when not in use. I'm still actually using recycled yogurt pots of a brand that my late Mother used to buy regularly, who passed away almost 17 years ago now. I have also been recycling many other plastic pots for over 30 years. If occasionally one splits then it doesn't get thrown out - it's used as a sleeve inside another split one - making one strong, usable pot and avoiding more waste.
A home made cold frame is very useful if you don't have a greenhouse or polytunnel
Speaking of recycling reminded me of this! If you don't a cold frame - you can easily make one using 2"x 4" rough timber and clear polythene sheeting - obtainable pretty cheaply from builders merchants or DIY shops, or even from skips if you're like me! A home-made cold-frame can be made a lot higher than those normally available and then it allows you to grow taller summer crops which need protection too. It's amazing the perfectly good stuff you see being chucked out when people are doing up their houses - my car is trained to automatically slow up on sighting a skip! They even wastefully throw away perfectly good windows and patio doors - ideal for sitting on bricks to make extra growing space! If you ask nicely and don't cause a mess - people are often only too happy to give them away as it makes more room in the skip! And a nice pot plant or a few veg later in the year doesn't go amiss either!
I made my very first large 'grow frame' - as I called it - by recycling some timber I'd found dumped. It lasted for 5 years until we moved and my 'other half' flatly refused to bring it with us!! (I suppose it was falling apart a bit - it was made from recycled timber after all - and believe me I'm no carpenter!) And I suppose after moving about three lorry loads of plants - it was probably just about understandable - although I really hate waste!! That scruffy old cold frame made from 'skip-found' bits and pieces allowed me to grow my very first tomatoes, peppers and aubergines (the best ever) against a south facing wall in my first garden - and I learnt such a lot from growing in it! Sadly I don't have any photos from those days - I was far too busy raising very lively toddlers to think about such things in the pre-digital age - but I hope the diagram gives you an idea of how it was made! Even with polytunnels now - I still find a cold frame or two a very useful 'halfway-house', for hardening-off plants before they are planted out in the open garden.
Would you like to enjoy some 'extra early' potatoes for Easter?
You could plant some sprouted seed potatoes in pots inside in the next week or so for a 'super early' crop. This is the time when I start off my 'extra earlies' as I call them. They won’t need heat or light yet, as they won’t be up for two or three weeks, so you can start them off anywhere that’s basically frost free - and mouse proof! I usually do some under my large kitchen table! They won't need light until the tops emerge, but when they do - move them into your greenhouse or polytunnel and sit the pots on polythene, not on soil or anything they could root into, as the roots will come out of the bottom surprisingly quickly and root into whatever’s underneath - which will cause root disturbance later on when you lift the pots to plant them. They hate this and will sulk for ages if that happens! For the same reason use a good fibrous, peat-free organic potting compost to pot them in - not soil. Compost will hold together much better when tipping out of the pot to plan out - whereas soil would probably fall apart. Just put one seed potato in the middle of each 2 litre pot of compost about 2/3rds. of the way down - and cover it with compost up to the top. Do this before the end of this month and first- early varieties should be ready for Easter. They only need roughly 10 weeks growing time to have baby new potatoes ready to eat. Lady Christl is the very best variety for doing this as it's the earliest bulking variety and can produce usable sized potatoes after just 8 weeks! I always save my own from the previous year.
If you don't have any of your own early potatoes saved from last year - then you could look around in veg shops for any first or second early variety which would have been held over from last year. Take them out of the packs when you get them home or they'll sweat. Put them somewhere warm and dark (important as they'll start to sprout much quicker that way) like a box under the kitchen table for instance, and then in a week or so they will be well sprouted and you can plant them. Annabelle or Charlotte are very good salad potatoes which are quite happy to be grown this way, Exquisa is another (not quite such a good cropper). I've seen them all in the shops just recently. When the tops have emerged from the compost, then put them somewhere in good light - like a polytunnel, or if you haven't got one - a cold frame - and cover with lots of fleece whenever it's very cold to prevent frost damage, uncovering if possible during the day if it's mild enough. In case you think this is a lot of faffing around - you'll be so glad you did it, when you proudly serve your very own new potatoes at Easter!
This is usually the month when stocks of stored main crop potatoes may begin to run low - unless you grew acres of them. If you need some inspiration, then just think of new potatoes, with lashings of butter, in mid-April - yum! OK - so they're quite high in carbohydrates - but you can reduce their carbs and turn them into what's known as 'resistant starch' by cooking and then chilling them for at least 8 hours in the fridge, then reheating using whatever method you like. Doing this can reduce their carb content by up to 50% according to one study - and anyway - if you're not living on them all the time they can't do you any harm occasionally! They're also nutritious and resistant starch encourages the good bacteria in your gut to multiply, which is good for your immune system too. If you're still worried about carbs, then just cut back on them in other areas of your diet so you can enjoy some new potatoes - they're one of life's great joys! I'd rather have them than sugar in my tea any day - and we rarely eat cakes or biscuits here, healthy veg always come first!
Firm in and stake brassica plants
Another thing to check after all the wind we've had is brassica crops. Firm in - and stake if necessary - any which may have suffered from wind rock in the wet soil - and also keep them well protected from birds with some netting suspended above plants. The pheasants and pigeons here are getting very hungry and were using the netting like a trampoline before Christmas in order to weigh it down and peck at the Brussels sprouts through the top. I think it's definitely time for a few roast pheasant dinners! The remaining Brussels sprouts would complement them nicely and I'd really enjoy them - given the damage they do if given half a chance!
Keep beds covered if they don't currently have a crop in them
I just want to remind you once again thatif you leave freshly dug ground uncovered and open to the elements, as some thoughtless people do, our increasingly high winter rainfall will wash out and waste valuable nutrients, causingpollutionof ground water, carbon loss and loss of soil biodiversity. It's best to protect the soil and keep it covered either with a growing crop, a weather proof mulch that can't leach nutrients in heavy rain, like wood chips, or a waterproof cover. This is essential at all times in winter when the weather's very wet! It's important to keep compost heaps covered too - for the same reason. The climate is changing, becoming much more unpredictable and definitely far wetter at certain times. We need to recognise this, be flexible and move with the times - not stick to outdated and old-fashioned modes of thinking from the last century!
Double digging - as recommended in all the old gardening books is also definitely out - we now know that doing this breaks up important fungal threads and buries all the vital soil life much too deeply - a bit like drowning - so it can take years to recover. Soil life needs light and air too - and it's vital for growing healthy crops as it makes the nutrients in the soil available to plants. If you need better drainage - then make raised beds! For the last 35 years - I've practised what I call 'minimum dig' - or minimum cultivation gardening in raised beds. I don't call it 'no-dig' - because actually no type of gardening is truly that - you still have to plant things and dig potatoes or other root crops! But of necessity, now that my back is deteriorating even more - I do as little work possible to get maximum returns - while at the same time protecting the soil's structure and it's whole ecosystem as far as possible. My co-workers are worms - they do most of the work! A healthy, nutrient-rich and vitally alive soil is the basis of all good organic growing.
As I always say, look after Nature - and Nature will look after you!
Thank you so much to all the people who have taken the time to write and thank me for my work - or thanked me on Twitter.I really enjoy sharing my original ideas and 40 years experience of growing and cooking my own organic food with you. It's most satisfying and naturally also very complimentary if others find "inspiration" in my work......But if you do happen to copy any of my material, or repeat it in any way online - I would appreciate it very much if you would please mention that it originally came from me, as it's the result of many years of hard work. Thank you.
January main contents:Planting Ideas?.....There's always lots of healthy food in a well-planted polytunnel.....One of the commonest complaints I hear is "my children won't eat vegetables"!.....Time to plant some 'extra early ' potatoes in pots in mid January.....Use it or lose it! Making use of every inch of soil is what Nature does!.....Rotational thinking.....Don't have empty, uncovered ground now either outside or in the tunnel.....Get your worms working for you!
1. North West beds
2. North East
3. South West
4. South East
Above is the annual New Year's Day picture I take of my main beds showing the wide range of winter crops available.
My polytunnel isn't a show garden - it is never 'prepared' to be photographed specially for the website or for a magazine. I like people to see that it's a genuinely REAL garden, warts, weeds and all - gardened by a person who lives a very busy REAL life! It can often even look quite scruffy - but I really think it can put people off gardening if they think everything always has to be pristine and perfect. Nature doesn't do tidy and pristine - although for me it's always perfect! Apart from growing most of my own food - I'm also a writer and recipe developer - always experimenting and inventing new ways of cooking the real foods that I grow (which my family certainly seem to appreciate!). I'm an occasional portrait sculptor too when I have time, and if I'm asked to do an interesting commission. (That's probably just another slightly different way of getting my hands dirty while working with clay really - something that I've always loved ever since childhood, having been brought up in a garden on heavy clay, where making small pots is one of my earliest memories of working with soil!) Anyway - as a result of leading a very busy life - one of the best things about having a polytunnel for me is that it allows me to work whenever I have the time. I'm not restricted by the weather - because the soil is always in exactly the condition that I want it to be and as I also have an electricity supply there - I could even work in the dark if I really wanted to - but rarely do anything other than dash out to cover something with fleece after dark, if the late weather forecast suddenly changes and predicts frost!!
I try to make my polytunnel as near as possible a microcosm of the things that you would naturally find in an outside garden - just undercover - with the same diversity and balanced ecology that you would find in any organic garden. I try to have as wide variety as possible of healthy, chemical-free food and flowers not just for us but also for the vital diversity of wildlife like bees, butterflies, birds, frogs etc that help to do Nature's work all year round. As a result - it produces plenty of organic, peat-free, REAL food in every month of the year - not just in summer - without using any chemical pesticides whatsoever - even any of the natural ones that may be allowed under some organic certification. Over the last 40 years or so I've always found that observing how Nature grows things and trying to mimic those conditions as far as possible, is the best way to grow food that is healthier for us and the environment. I've never needed to use any sprays at all - even the garlic ones I see so often advised by some gardeners. Nature doesn't spray things with garlic!! It doesn't add anything to soil but plant remains - with occasional accidental fertilisation from animals. Obviously if we take crops from soil we have to replace any nutrients we take away by using compost - but it seems to me that often the hardest thing for so many people who are starting to learn about organic gardening is just accepting that Nature actually knows best - not man! People have been so completely brainwashed into thinking that a spray or a quick fix is needed for everything immediately they see it - that they often don't have the patience to just wait and trust that Nature will deal with pest problems - given a healthy soil and the right conditions for her predatory army!
The polytunnel helps us to be self-sufficient in a wide variety of not just winter salads but also other crops - such as chards, chicory, calabrese, watercress, kales, spinach and herbs like parsley which can be picked daily, despite the cold temperatures. This is the time of year when a polytunnel really proves it's worth - quite apart from the fabulous summer crops it obviously grows. Looking around the shops at the moment - they are almost completely empty of any decent organic vegetables apart from root crops - not just because it's the New Year but also because of the dreadful weather throughout Europe and further afield, where increasingly, many of the imported organic crops that supermarkets sell are now grown. Although many of the winter crops I grow could in theory be produced outside in our vegetable garden - they are much more reliable in a polytunnel and consistently produce far bigger crops, due to the protection from the elements like storms and very heavy rain. Unfortunately these weather conditions are an increasing problem due to the unpredictable weather patterns that are happening more frequently due to climate change. Why do I insist on growing peat-free compost is something people often ask? Apart from the fact that none of the major vegetable crops we eat actually evolved to grow in peat - using peat destroys peat bogs which are vitally important carbon sinks and host valuable biodiversity. Extracting peat from them releases millions of years of stored carbon - which rapidly accelerates climate change! The rise in peat use originally coincided with the rise in container-grown plants being sold in garden centres and online nurseries etc. because it's much lighter than soil. As it's easier to handle than soil based composts - it facilitates the horticulture industry, who are reluctant to stop using it - despite the huge amount of scientific evidence that doing so is incredible damaging for the environment, causing not just carbon release but also pollution and flooding. The only crops that humans ea, which evolved to grow in the naturally acid conditions of peat bogs, are some fruits like blueberries and cranberries, that like a low soil pH. Being an unnatural medium for most crops - the sterile peat needs chemical fertilisers added to feed the plants. This then of course means that plants are unhealthy, because peat composts don't provide the additional natural soil diversity that plants need in order to produce the compounds which protect them from pests and diseases. This has the predictable result that the nonsensical and biodiversity-damaging chemical merry-go-round continues....with gardeners then using chemical sprays to get rid of the pests and diseases that the poor plants couldn't deal with!
Apart from all those very good reasons why I love my organic, very biodiverse polytunnel - it's really also my personal Narnia. It's a natural space where in winter, when things are a bit more slow and relaxed, I can enjoy just sitting or pottering, observing nature and getting my hands dirty! Somewhere where I can plug into the soil no matter what the weather and where I'm actually earthing myself - which again science is beginning to prove is so important for our mental health - especially if the soil is full of a healthy diversity of microbes and mycorrhizal fungi (did we really need scientists to tell us that?). It's also often a place where I'm also just peacefully thinking - and so often germinating and planting ideas is something that is just as important as sowing or planting plants!
Our midwinter/solstice From Tunnel to Table was fun as usual!
Gerry Kelly & I enjoyed recording our midwinter Solstice edition of 'From Tunnel to Table' once again!
Our Christmas special 'From Tunnel to Table' special was great fun as usual! The fairy lights twinkling in the deepening gloom of late afternoon dusk on the solstice eve, 21st December looked very festive, the reindeer headbands I insisted we wore looked suitably silly and the new recipe was a real winner with everyone - especially Gerry - who is always such an appreciative eater! If you missed it you can hear the podcast on the 'listen' button.The watercress I used already seems to have perked up even more despite the cold and I already can't see where I picked masses of it for the recipe which I practiced several times for the programme. It's only a couple of weeks since then - but already the days seem to have stretched just the tiniest bit, on the couple of lovely bright but frosty days we've had recently. The hens clearly think so too - because on the 2nd of January I collected my very first organic egg of 2018! As they're 3 years old now and hens tend to lay a bit less as they get older anyway - it was such a lovely surprise. They really appreciate their warm comfortable lodgings and all the healthy greens they get. The others will no doubt follow suit soon, as their combs are already starting to look a little redder - always a reliable sign they're coming back 'into lay'. The polytunnel is also useful of course for feeding them their daily greens in the winter - so important to keep hens healthy and keep those egg yolks a lovely dark orange colour and full of proper nutrition!
Whatever the weather - there's always lots of healthy food in a well-planted polytunnel - especially winter salads!
It's so good to be looking forward to another spring - now only just a couple of months away. The more the days lengthen - the more quickly things will start to grow now - especially the salads. Despite the really cold weather over the last few weeks - we're able to pick plenty of salad veg from the polytunnel every day - and oddly enough - I seem to crave healthy salads even more in winter! They do say we should listen to our gut feeling - and mine is telling me that I need salads, especially watercress, every day! We need all the protective antioxidant phytochemicals in raw salad leaves even more at this time of year - so I'll be starting my earliest sowings of more salad leaves in the next week or so (see 'What to Sow Now - Jan.)
I look forward to picking a different salad for lunch every day no matter what the time of year. The content varies depending on what I happen feel like - I go out into the tunnel or garden and just sort of 'dowse' instinctively. Watercress is always one of my favourites. It's so versatile and hardy, grows like mad even in winter and takes only two minutes to pick a few of the abundant tender shoot tips for all manner of fast and delicious dishes. Picking the shoot tips along with the first 2 or 3 leaf joints and leaves is the secret of keeping it producing well for months. This prevents it from flowering and keeps it making succulent new side shoots, as long as you keep the soil it's growing in fairly damp too. It gets a really good 'haircut' every so often all around the edges of the bed as it starts to grow out very enthusiastically into the paths. It makes a delicious soup if you have plenty - especially accompanied by some home-made crusty wholemeal spelt bread. (Soup recipe in that section of blog). It's great tossed into just cooked pasta along with blue cheese or anything else you fancy, in my low carb wraps (again in the recipe section) or just as it is in all sorts of salads. It also freezes very well - so you can have it for sauces and soups all year round. It's so expensive to buy in shops if you can get it - and even when you can find it - it's often 3 days old and already going slimy! It's as easy as falling off a log to grow from seed, or cuttings, and is happy all year round in a damp shady spot in the tunnel, or outside under cloches even in winter. That's a spot where very few crops will grow well.
There's just nothing like those juicy, fresh green shoots of the watercress and all the other salads, urgently pushing up towards the light, to rekindle that eternal gardener's optimism at this time of year. There's also nothing like them to keep winter colds at bay either! Just now I'm looking forward to yet another lunch of the Organic Blue cheese, pear and watercress salad that I did for our Tunnel to Table programme - I just can't get enough of it at the moment and eat it almost every day as it's so delicious and nutritious! The peppery nutrient-rich leaves of watercress combine so well with anything though - and my walnut, avocado oil, cider vinegar and honey dressing is the perfect complement drizzled over it! Watercress is so easy, yummy and chock-full of healthy, cancer-fighting phytochemicals! Watercress is a truly perennial herb. In the summer when the polytunnel would be too hot for it - I pull up a few roots to grow outside in a shady damp spot - then in the autumn I just take cuttings of those to plant again in a new spot in the polytunnel. Remember if you grow it though - that it's a member of the brassica family and must go in that section of your rotation, wherever you grow it. The only pest that attacks it is the cabbage white butterfly - whose eggs are hard to spot on watercress and one often doesn't notice them until the entire plant has been defoliated! So keeping it covered with netting in summer will prevent this and also give it a bit more of the shade it appreciates.
One of the commonest complaints I hear is "my children won't eat vegetables"
Well in my experience children tend to follow by example - so they will generally eat whatever you eat! That's why it's really important that they see their parents enjoying a wide variety of vegetables every day! Our meals have always consisted of at least three quarters vegetables and I never had a problem with my kids eating any veg. My daughter had a lot of allergies from birth, so from experience was rightly cautious, if not sometimes downright suspicious, of almost anything new. If I produced anything she hadn't encountered before - the reaction would most often be an automatic and emphatic "NO". So I discovered that a bit of reverse psychology worked well there! To the suspicious "What's THAT?" from her - I would just offhandedly reply - "Oh - that's not for children it's only for the grown-ups!" whereupon she would demand whatever it was immediately or threaten a tantrum!! One of my oldest friends still recounts with huge amusement the tale of an occasion when she invited my small children to have tea with hers. As she worked full-time, she had gone to enormous trouble to provide some scrumptious goodies from a well known, very upmarket and expensive local French bakery. As usual - my children had been reminded to remember their manners during their visit. When offered a cake - my daughter replied very politely and cautiously - "Oh - no thank you, we don't eat 'bought' cakes"! Bless her - that still makes us all chuckle - aren't children wonderful!! Getting them involved in growing veg is great too - particularly if they're things like peas and strawberries which they really enjoy and can easily grow for themselves.
Calabrese 'Green Magic' - main head ready for cutting.
'Green Magic' making juicy side shoots after central head cut
The calabrese 'Green Magic' (Unwins) that I grow is always a big favourite with children - luckily as it's one of the healthiest things they could eat! It's grown really well again in the tunnel as it does every year - the main heads are late this year as it's been a bit colder. They're ready to cut now though. It will come on very well again after cutting as the light improves and will produce lots of small, but very tasty tender shoots for a couple of months before warmer spring weather makes it run to up to flower. I do an autumn sowing every year, and find this variety very reliable. I always cover it at night with a double layer of fleece to protect it from frost and it will go on for ages producing small shoots after the main crop. I really like the flavour of this very productive variety - and I think that the best way to eat it at this time of year is raw with some hummus or an avocado dip which maximises all it's nutrients. It's so crunchy, sweet and delicious when really fresh - far better for you than 'rubbery', several days old, stuff available in shops. Tired because of travelling from Spain or God knows where! Children really love it's sweet flavour.
It's important not to overfeed any winter crops with too much rich manure or other feed when planting them in the autumn. In winter there's not enough light for the plants to photosynthesise well enough to turn all the available nitrates into sugars for growth - with the result that they then taste more bitter and are also more disease prone. I'm convinced that's why so many people really hate Brussels sprouts and other winter brassicas - especially as too much fertiliser use can be a particular problem with chemically-grown crops. Thirty-five years ago when my children were small, their friends would eat my cabbages and spinach etc. quite happily. Their mothers were always totally astonished - as they wouldn't eat the chemically grown, shop-bought vegetables which hey were offered at home! In fact that's what got me started on growing organic vegetables commercially. So many of them asked if they could buy my organic produce - which was extremely rare then. I'm convinced that very small children have naturally more discriminating taste buds - perhaps an ancient throwback to when tasting and perhaps spitting out nasty-tasting, potentially poisonous food might have been vital to survival.
Time to plant some 'extra early ' potatoes in pots in mid January
We really enjoyed the 'Purple Majesty' and 'Violetta' potatoes which I planted in 10lt. pots in early September with our Christmas and New Year meals. They added a lot of colour, phytonutrients and wonderful flavour. Their siblings, along with several other varieties that I saved for planting this Jan and spring are already raring to go - with lovely sprouts on. Several people have told me Purple Majesty seems to be quite difficult to get as seed tubers at the moment.Luckily I always save the most perfect potatoes from my own crops as my own seed for planting the following year. I've been saving them for several years now, originally from potatoes I bought in a supermarket. It's quite legal to do this as long as you don't sell the seed, and it's a great way to pick up new varieties! This avoids possibly bring in diseases and there's also apparently some evidence that they may acclimatise to your particular garden after a couple of years. You should only ever save the very cleanest, most blemish-free seed from the healthiest plants for doing this. I'll be planting some of these and several other earlier cropping varieties in the middle of this month in 2lt. pots, for planting out later in the tunnel. This ensures that I always have some delicious 'extra early potatoes for Easter - whenever that comes in the calendar!
The terrific thing about a tunnel or greenhouse is that it allows you to experiment with many crops that would never do well outside in our climate - and there are also plenty of crops normally grown outdoors here in winter that are so much more productive under cover. Swiss chard and kale are very good examples - and also crops that are never much good outside in average summers here. Melons for example will revel in the tunnel's humid summer warmth and can be really productive. There are far more varieties available now than there were a few years ago. There seem to be a lot more varieties of lettuce suitable for winter growing too - I'm going to trial a few more this year - mostly loose leaf 'picking' varieties as these are the most valuable - giving such a long period of cropping. Although they're as tough as old boots and can recover completely from being frozen to a crisp - endives really enjoy the indoor life too. They're more disease-resistant than most winter lettuce and the slugs don't seem to like them quite as much either - which is useful. I discovered a nice pale leaved one a few years ago called 'White Curled'. It isn't as bitter as the normal types which I normally blanch for a week or so before picking. I pick individual leaves of 'White Curled' all winter long - they're very decorative in a mixed salad - making a nice contrast with their pretty, finely cut leaves of pale lemony-green. I originally got it from Simpson's seeds but as it's what's known as an 'open-pollinated variety - not an 'F1' hybrid - I save my own seed now every couple of years which saves money too. I mark the best plant for later on, then in spring I'll let it flower. The bees absolutely adore it so they pollinate it for me and then it sets seed. That keeps both the bees and me happy - a double whammy!
'Inter-cropping' - or growing fast-growing crops between slower maturing crops is something I've always done since I first started gardening in a tiny space 40 years ago. It's the way to make best possible use of every inch of any space. To me it's always seemed common sense that here's no point in leaving ground bare between rows of slower growing things and just hoeing or weeding, if some useful and edible could be growing there! If there isn't room for something to grow, or it doesn't fit into your rotation - which is very important - then an organic mulch is always a good idea. Soil should never be left bare. If you observe nature you'll see that it always populates ground with something - often what us gardeners tend to think of as weeds!. Bare soil is only natural at times in a desert - but even that isn't really bare - it's full of indigenous plant seeds just waiting for some precious rain so that they can spring to life again. Soil should be covered with something all the time, to prevent erosion, loss of carbon, minerals and nutrients. Covering soil with an organic mulch also feeds soil life like worms and protects the microbial life which makes humus. So my gut feeling was right!
Someone who has been reading my blog for a while did a Twitter survey a while ago to see how many people covered their soil in winter. I was astonished to see how many still cling to the old way of leaving soil completely bare over the winter, so that the surface is broken up to a fine tilth (to use the old expression) by frost. Before the advent of soil-damaging chemical fertilisers in the early 20th century - you could get away with doing do this as soil was then still full of humus which literally 'glues' the soil particles together - and which had built up millennia - first by the actions of Nature and later by gardeners adding manure and composts to soils in order to fertilise crops. With climate change bringing more extremes of weather - it's now neither sensible nor environmentally acceptable to do this. Soil MUST be protected - it is a valuable resource and if it's left open to the weather in winter - it can literally just wash away carrying most of it's nutrients. Failing a green manure or existing over-wintering crops to protect it's surface and retain nutrients - a good organic mulch even covered with old cardboard, carpet or polythene is better than nothing and will stop rain washing through it! But NEVER leave compost, or manure-covered ground open to the weather either - that's worse than covering it with nothing. It doesn't just lose valuable nutrients but it causes serious pollution of groundwater too! As I'm always saying - it doesn't matter that the ground may later produce very good crops. That is a selfish point of view and is only proof that far too much was probably put on the ground in the first place - since much of the nutrients would have been completely washed away! Here endeth another manure rant!
In my garden I often tend to go one step even further than 'inter-cropping' by doing what I call 'continuous layered cropping'. This means constantly overlapping crops - which can get pretty hectic at times! Maybe it should be called 'extreme inter-cropping' instead! Some people have now named this type of gardening 'polyculture'. A very neat new name for an old practice which many of the old self-sufficient cottage gardeners always did! I started doing this when I only had a tiny garden over 40 years ago - but even though I now have plenty of space, I still do it because plants seem much happier growing that way, as long as they have enough air circulation to avoid diseases - and to me it has always just seemed a far more natural way to grow. After all - Nature does it all the time. You need to plan well in advance for this type of cropping though. You also to know roughly how long each crop takes to grow and importantly - how much room it will need as it grows. Whether it needs full sun or won't mind a bit of shade. You have to be extremely careful with watering and ventilation with close cropping too, in order to avoid disease, particularly under cover in a polytunnel or cold frame where there's less air circulation. You also need to keep an eye out for any slugs which may be lurking around with all the extra shelter! If you're not careful with this kind of snug-fit gardening - you can end up with the green 'mess' similar to many 'so-called' permaculture gardens I've seen. Nature loves messy gardens which is good I'll grant you - but they don't produce much in the way of crops and surely that's the point?
It's fun sometimes pushing the limits a bit - it's something I've always liked to do with my gardening. You learn a lot by trying different things and every garden is different. I'm constantly experimenting - it's fun. As I've mentioned - planning well really is of the essence. That's why sitting in your polytunnel, having a good look around and making notes can be really valuable at this time of year, when there's not too much urgent work to do. When growth really starts to take off again and you're busy sowing seeds etc - you don't want to waste time wondering exactly where you were going to plant things - or perhaps waste plants because you've got no room to plant them! Although I must say there's always a queue of grateful recipients for any of my spare plants! There really is no excuse not to have a good range of winter salads in your tunnel or greenhouse, or even under large cloches if you plan well and grow the right things. There's more choice than ever in the catalogues now.
Use it or lose it! Making use of every inch of soil is what Nature does!
A tunnel allows you to extend the seasonsat both ends if you plan really well - and I'll be sowing some sugar pea 'Delikett' next week. We'll be eating them at the end of April with our extra-early new potatoes - in what people still call the 'Hungry Gap'. There's never hungry gap here though thanks to polytunnels! In the next couple of weeks I'll also be sowing lettuce, carrots, beetroot, turnips and spinach in modules as well as planting some of those 'extra earlies' in pots. The 2nd early/early maincrops Violetta and Purple Emperor did really well early in the tunnel again last year - so I shall definitely be planting some of those too. All the seeds I sow will be germinated in the house in the warm (at room temp.- around 60degF/16degC-ish) - then put out onto the roll-out heated mat on the tunnel staging, which gives a low bottom warmth - just enough to keep them frost-free and growing. The potatoes will also be started off in the house and then go out into the tunnel when they appear above the compost, as they'll need light then too - but if very cold weather is forecast they'll all be covered with at least a double layer of fleece for extra protection.
When it comes to extending the autumn season it obviously works in reverse - things that would normally stop growing in early October outside will go on for weeks or even months longer during a mild winter under cover. A good example is the late crop of self-blanching celery I always sow in May. Planted out between the early sweetcorn - it crops well through most winters - crisp, juicy and delicious. When the sweet corn is finished it's cut down to the base - rather than pulling it up and disturbing the celery - which would make it run up to seed. Then land cress is planted between the celery. The middle row of celery is cut first - by Christmas - which allows the land cress more light. When it perks up it gives a useful crop from otherwise empty space before the entire bed is cleared. I sowed some home-saved seed of 'Crimson Flowered' broad bean last night - 3 to a recycled 500ml yogurt pot - and as soon as they're up they'll go out into the tunnel - again covering with fleece if a hard frost is forecast. I don't bother sowing broad beans outside in November any more as I find that those sown now will crop just as soon - and often far better. I've been saving my own seed of this beautiful and tasty variety for over 30 years now, always selecting the tallest, heaviest-cropping plants to save from, as originally it was quite short. Mine reach about 5 feet high now!. I got it originally from the Heritage Seed Library of the HDRA (now Garden Organic). Following on again from those will be brassicas (cabbage) family next autumn/winter - probably late calabrese (Italian broccoli) and kales. They make use of the 'free' atmospheric nitrogen the legumes will have fixed while growing. An example of Nature's wonderfully designed symbiosis at work!
As I've so often said everything is connected - that's how Nature designed it - but we humans so often arrogantly assume that we know better! Current scientific studies - initiated by worries about the decreasing resilience of soils due to the extreme weather effects of climate change - are proving that the more diverse the crops you grow together - then the more diverse the rooting habits of plants are. This in turn also encourages a more diverse soil ecology and so naturally the health of our crops will be better.Chemical farming feeds the soil on 'junk food' - and that makes it just as unhealthy as a diet of junk food does us humans! An organically-fed, carbon and microbially-rich living soil is far healthier and more resilient. It physically insulates and 'cushions' the plant roots against both flooding and drought - and also gives the plants all the things they need to produce the compounds they need to protect themselves against pests and diseases. All successful ancient civilisations knew this, and really understood the value of a healthy soil without the advantages of microscopy that we have now!
Taking that into consideration then - another thing that you need to plan really well is rotations. You may not think so - but a well-planned rotation is just as important undercover as outside - perhaps even more so. If you don't plan proper rotations - soil-borne diseases or pests like eelworm, harmful nematodes and depletion of certain nutrients can very quickly build up. I know it's difficult to stick to a four-course rotation in a polytunnel or greenhouse - but I find it easier by dividing up my large tunnel up so that I grow the 4 main plant families in 8 beds. These are raised by using 7in/18cm.planks which save my back too!
A big problem in tunnels is that there are so many of the Solanaceae (tomato family) that we all want to grow. Aubergines, tomatoes, peppers, chillies and potatoes are all the same family - far too many to grow in just the two designated Solanaceae beds in my tunnel in any one year. One of the ways I get round this is to grow quite a few of that family in large containers like 10 litre recycled mayo or coleslaw buckets - as I've mentioned before. The deli counter at your local shop will have loads which they will be only too happy to give you - as they have to find space to store them until they can be taken off for recycling. They will literally last for years if you store them away from light when you're not using them for growing in - otherwise they become brittle quickly. They will save you a fortune - and really extend the range of things you can grow successfully! Peppers and aubergines in particular are perfectly happy in these, also some of the smaller bush varieties of tomatoes like 'Maskota' are much better behaved in large pots (and also well away from marauding slugs on the ground). Although the bigger cordon varieties will produce quite a good crop in containers and did very well in 2012, 2013 and 2016 when I was growing a lot for the Tomato Festival. In pots they were actually earlier cropping than those in the ground. They generally prefer a bigger root run though, so they need plenty of TLC and careful watering in pots. Larger pots can also be bought at many farm supply shops who sell commercial horticultural needs - these arealways far cheaper than in any DIY multiples!
This year I'll be growing my usual 'Rosada F1', 'John Baer', 'Sungold F1', Maskotka and Pantano Romanesco. I shall also be growing the best of the new ones I've discovered in the last couple of years - like Blush and Moonglow. I won't be growing so many (46+) varieties again for a very long time though - it was a bit too much work - even for a tomatoholic like me! I did discover some very useful and tasty new varieties though - which I talk about in my 'Tomato Report 2016' elsewhere. As every year is different - varieties can vary quite a bit from year to year in performance - but if they don't have a really good flavour, or seem much more prone to disease than everything else - then they don't even get a second chance! One thing is for sure though - and that is that our summers are becoming far less predictable. The tomatoes pictured below are certainly two that I would never be without, and are definitely still my yardstick for flavour.
Talking of growing in pots reminds me that it's time to bring in the early strawberries in pots now. Last year I potted runners into 2 litre pots as usual and they've spent the winter outside for a good chill. The variety I grow - 'Christine' - is the best flavoured early for forcing in pots and always fruits by my birthday in mid-May or even earlier which is a real treat (of course I'm a food-loving Taurean - surely you could tell - Taurus is an Earth sign!) Christine is really the most reliable early variety - it's also incredibly vigorous and make loads of runners to give to friends, which are always welcome. I also grew the 'ever-bearing' or remontant variety 'Albion' for the first time in large 10 litre pots a few years ago and it fruited for months, enjoying a feed of my usual 'Osmo' organic tomato feed every couple of weeks. It also has a really terrific flavour and even freezes well without completely collapsing on defrosting.
Don't have empty, uncovered ground now either outside or in the tunnel
If you have empty ground where you've just cleared a crop, then you can get ahead with lightly raking in some nice well-rotted compost so that you have that ground ready for early plantings. You could possibly even sow some quick growing salad or oriental salad mixes in situ if they fit into your rotation.Or you could sow now into modules which would be even quicker- a small pinch into each - and plant them out in a few weeks. That would give you some early salads. If you live in a milder part of the country or we have a mild spell you could be eating baby leaves in as little as 6 - 8 weeks! As the weather warms up they will start to flower and go to seed - March days can be surprisingly warm in a tunnel when the sun is full out - but then you can leave a few to flower for early bees and dig the rest in as a green manure! The worms will love you as they'll just be really waking up then and very hungry! By the way - if you also leave some of the fast-growing oriental salad mixes to flower - they will attract in grateful early, nectar seeking, beneficial insects like hoverflies and bees.
It might even be worth sowing a quick growing green manure crop like mustard if it fits into your rotation - it will germinate at around 45deg.F/.7deg.C. In late autumn or early March. I usually sow the green manure mustard 'Caliente' in one of the beds where I will be growing tomatoes the following summer. It makes a good bulk to chop up and fork in for the worms to work on before planting the tomatoes in early May. 'Caliente' is a new breed of mustard that acts as a 'biofumugant' - releasing phytochemical gases which clean up any problems in the soil and also encourages good bacteria and beneficial nematodes to multiply. You do need to fork it into the soil as soon as possible after chopping up though - to get the full benefit of it's bio-fumigant properties - or they may evaporate and be lost into the air. Covering the area temporarily with polythene also helps the process by capturing the gases too so that they condense and fall back and also has the effect of warming the soil. Last year it certainly encouraged centipedes - I've never seen so many scampering away when I lifted the cover off the bed to see how things were going - and the worms loved it too! In my old tunnel down at the far end of the garden the soil had become quite 'tomato sick' after many years of tomato crops, despite careful 4 year rotations - the only option until now was to remove all the old soil and replace it with fresh - which the old kitchen gardeners would do. This year I shall sow some 'Caliente' there in early spring and then not grow any tomato family there for a few years - hoping it will recover. I don't much fancy changing the soil in a large tunnel to a depth of 1/2 a metre - the only other alternative to growing in containers - since I can't move the tunnel! I may rear a few broiler chickens in there after that - as I did years ago. They really love it in the dry and warm environment of a tunnel and enjoy scratching around in there - as long as I can keep out foxes!
Get your worms working for you!
If you're clever and look after them well - worms will do most of the work for you by breaking down and processing green manures and compost after you add them to your soil, enriching it with their worm casts at the same time! Worm casts are actually many times more nutritious than normal garden compost - they can be up to 10 times higher in potash, phosphorus and many other nutrients, so it's worth having a worm bin as well as a normal compost heap or bin. In fact, I would almost go so far as to say it's more useful than a large compost bin - particularly in small gardens where space is at a premium. Worm compost is the most fantastic tonic - it's like rocket fuel for plants! I have huge respect for worms - many people don't realise just how vital they are - and how hard they're always working 24/7 behind the scenes in our gardens even at night!
Contrary to what most people think - worms like green food to eat - not just rotted compost. One evening this was amply demonstrated to me when I was out at dusk in a nearly dark tunnel picking a salad for supper by torchlight. Just as I was bending down to pick some leaves a movement in the furthest corner of my eye caught my attention. For a split second I wondered what it was - then I moved the torch just in time to see a worm disappearing backwards fast down into it's burrow, firmly grasping a piece of partially decayed claytonia leaf, which it pulled underground in record time! Absolute magic! I've never actually seen that happen in front of my eyes before!One of the wonders of Nature only seen by the very observant few like Darwin - or the very lucky like me! Even more reason to feel sorry when I cut one in half with the spade - I always apologise! Funny how doing the same to slugs really doesn't bother me one little bit!
It's been so grey and damp on many days for the last few weeks thatsaid slugs have cheekily been out quite shamelessly in broad daylight - if you could call it that! I've been patrolling the tunnel with the scissors whenever I feel like a break from being inside at the computer because I don't want them building up - which they certainly will if left to carry on undisturbed. It's very therapeutic! As there's also quite a bit of botrytis, or grey mould starting to happen now with all the cold damp weather - diligent housekeeping is vitally necessary. Remove any mouldy or dying leaves immediately!
The polytunnel is the only place in the garden in which to be comfortable right now. I try to spend some time in there every day just tidying, sorting pots etc. Putting time into odd jobs in the tunnel now while we can before things get busy again also pays off hugely later! Sometimes I just sit in there to get my daily dose of light. Yesterday as I sat in there quietly for a while I watched the sparrows, wrens and robins hunting insects in there and a thrush and a whole 'charm' of godfinches were singing beautifully up in the hedge just north of the polytunnel. It was absolute bliss! I wouldn't be without my tunnels for anything! January is such a hopeful time of year. Lots of plans to make and new things to look forward to! I'm so grateful for my polytunnels! In the future they may well be the only way to grow food crops in many parts of the world with increasingly wet conditions cause by climate change.
Just a reminder - Keep the tunnel tape handy at all times in this wild weather! If you have it - then chances are you probably won't need it. But without it - one small bit of damage to your tunnel can turn into no tunnel in seconds in the sort of gales we're experiencing now! (See my article on 'How To Mend Polytunnels')
Severe storms have been a huge problem several times over the autumn and winter so far, with me often having to shut the doors after only a couple of hour's ventilation in the mornings. Winds gusting around unpredictably can make life difficult here on top of our hill, as we're quite high up - and as the crow flies only about 5 miles from the sea. A few days ago I went up to close the tunnel doors as it was getting too gusty to be safe, only to discover that an enterprising pheasant had somehow neatly slipped through a gap in the netting at the top end and was just starting to investigate! Caught just in the nick of time!! He naturally panicked as soon as he saw me and started to fly at the sides of the tunnel like a bomb exploding - I was terrified that he would go through the polythene. Luckily, I managed to pin up the net at the top end - I walked around the outside down to the bottom end, going in through that door, so he then ran out of the top end door without any damage. - Major sigh of relief!! I have to say that I am grateful to him though - because as I replaced the net again - more securely this time - my eye was caught by lots of little holes in the polythene in the arch over the top of the door where insects always tend to get trapped in the summer. Almost as if someone had stubbed cigarettes out in a row - making a perforated line all along the polythene beside the end hoop. Having watched sparrows last summer in the other tunnel launching themselves from the top of the sliding door in order to catch insects, I realised immediately what caused the holes! The little dears! I'm now sitting here praying that the wind does no damage and that I can recruit some less accident-prone help to put some tunnel tape all along the hoops at both ends where they have pecked the holes. Going up a ladder with only one half good arm would not be a good idea for me! Sadly there are now times when even I have to admit that there are some things that I can't do without help! Particularly since breaking my right shoulder badly two years ago. I think I should be called the one-armed gardener now! The last thing I need is a pheasant gobbling up everything - the tunnel unzipping itself - or me having another accident like the one I had 4 years ago when tripping over a bramble on the way up to feed my hens!! My name should really be Calamity Jane!
Thank you so much to all the people who have taken the time to write and thank me for my work - or thanked me on Twitter.I really enjoy sharing my original ideas and 40 years experience of growing and cooking my own organic food with you. It's most satisfying and naturally also very complimentary if others find "inspiration" in my work......But if you do happen to copy any of my material, or repeat it in any way online - I would appreciate it very much if you would please mention that it originally came from me, as it's the result of many years of hard work. Thank you.
1. Recycled loo roll middles make great 'modules' packed together in a recycled mushroom box for early sowing of root crops
2. Carrot seeds sown into the top of loo roll 'modules', covered with a pinch of Vermiculite, then with a polythene bag to keep moisture in
First I want to wish you all a Very Happy, Healthy and Productive New Growing Year!
It's amazing just how even just the smallest little bit of increasing light can make you want to 'earth yourself' by getting plugged into the soil again! It's only a few days since the winter solstice but already there's a noticeable stretch on the brighter days. It may be my imagination but the plants in the polytunnel also seem just a little bit brighter too! It's not too long now until the mad spring rush of sowing and planting is here again. For now though - things move at a more leisurely pace - but there are still some things you can sow and do this month if your gardening fingers are itching like mine and you want to get ahead a little bit!
General advice for seed sowing:
There are quite a few things you could sow now or towards the end of January in pots or modules for planting out later in a tunnel, greenhouse or sheltered cold frame. You won't gain a huge amount by sowing too soon though. By leaving it for another couple of weeks the light will be increasing, so seedlings will be sturdier, will get a better start and you'll use less energy. Most seeds will germinate at normal house temperature - and as things take a week or so to appear anyway - you can sow some things inside the house and then put them out into good light in a greenhouse or frame as soon as the seedlings are up. Seedlings like lettuce, spinach and hardier salad plants will be fine then, with just some protection from frost with a couple of layers of fleece. Light governs their development to a great extent - so you can save money and energy by not wasting any heat needed for another couple of weeks yet - no matter how keen you are. Don't forget you can also do your seed sowing inside in comfort on the kitchen table - there's really no need to go outside in the freezing cold unless you're a masochist!
In my over 40 years experience I've found that using a good organic peat-free compost is by far the best and most reliable choice for everything. Not just from a plant health point of view but also for environmental reasons. Any extra expense is well worth it in terms of valuable seeds and seedlings not lost. After sowing - put your seed trays or modules somewhere in your house at average room temperature - and most seedlings will be up within a few days. I find seeds like lettuce take about 3 days at normal cool room temperature - they don't need a lot of warmth. Make sure to put them somewhere where you will remember to check on them twice a day, as seedlings like lettuce can become leggy very quickly if not given good light immediately. Once they have germinated, probably in a week or so for most things at this time of year, they will then need the very best light you can give them - which means either a tunnel, greenhouse or perhaps a cold frame against a south facing wall. They also need very good air circulation - so sowing in modules either individually or in 2's or 3's to thin later is the best option - as this avoids handling vulnerable seedlings which may result in possible 'damping-off'.
It's too wet, windy and cold for tiny seedlings to be outside completely unprotectedat this time of year but if sheltered from the weather most are fine as long as no frost is forecast. If it is - then bring them into the house again on very frosty nights and put them out again first thing in the morning. This may seem a bit of a faff but it's worth it. Sowing too early on windowsills often means unhealthy, leggy and drawn seedlings due to lack of light. If you don't have a greenhouse, polytunnel or frame outside, I would wait another couple of weeks yet - even if like me you can't wait to get started! Although some more tender heat lovers like tomatoes etc would need a warm propagator, I don't waste heat by sowing tomatoes yet as even those sown in another month will catch up and probably be healthier than any sown now!
Remember - the suggestions below are for things which you could sow now if you want to - NOT things you HAVE to!!
For tunnel planting later: - in a temp. of around 50 deg.F/10 deg.C:
You could sow- early carrots in long modules like loo roll middles - sit modules on 1/2 inch compost in something deep like a recycled plastic mushroom box to keep them upright, (approx. 32 loo roll tubes fit into a mushroom box) - fill them - and the gaps between them - with seed compost - then sow a tiny pinch of seed into each covering with vermiculite. Make sure the cardboard rolls don't stick up out of the compost or they will act like wicks - drawing out moisture and drying out too much - which means they could then shrivel and kill tiny roots. These will be ready for planting out in the tunnel in clumps - each about 30cm apart - probably at the end of next month when they have 2 'true' leaves. Also early calabrese (I grow 'Green Magic' a productive early variety), 'Ragged Jack' & 'Cavolo Nero' kales for baby leaves, spring onions, lettuces, broad beans, early and mangetout/sugar peas, green and red 'frills' mustards, mizuna, oriental mixed greens, beetroot, Swiss chards, salad leaves, radishes, and rocket.
At the end of the month you could sow tomatoes if you want an extra early crop- but bear in mind thatthey will need not just potting on at least once but also keeping warm for several weeks before eventual planting out. They must also be in very good light - or they will become drawn and 'leggy' - and therefore more vulnerable to disease. (Tip - a well known correspondent with the Irish Times told me that he raises his early ones in the warm under a Velux window in his house which provides excellent top light - a genius tip - wish I had one!) I always grow the bush variety 'Maskotka' (tasty bush cherry type) which is always my earliest ripening tomato - sown in mid-late February it's first ripe fruits are reliably ready to pick on 1st June without fail. The variety 'John Baer' (delicious, very early large fruited) - is also an excellent variety for sowing at the end of this month. You could also sow early aubergines - 'Bonica' is without question the best ever variety for home gardeners to grow from seed - I've grown it for many years now and it's totally reliable. It came out tops in the RHS trials over 10 yrs. ago as being the best for UK and in my experience it's the best variety for Irish conditions too. Remember though that both tomatoes and aubergines need a minimum temp. of about 70deg.F/21degC. for germination, reducing the heat afterwards to approx. 55deg.F/15deg.C, or just below, and maintaining that level until final planting out in tunnel beds or in pots eventually. You can achieve this bottom warmth quite economically with a roll-out heated mat.
For bees & beneficial insects - you could sow some single-flowered, nectar producing hardy annuals in modules now. Flowers such as limnanthes (poached egg flower), calendulas etc. will come into flower early this way and then they'll attract early hoverflies and ladybirds which help to control aphids. Early flowers also attract bumblebees and early honey bees to help pollinate early polytunnel crops like broad beans. Keep beneficial insects supplied with nectar and pollen then they'll be happy and stay with you all year. If there's no flowers for them to feed on - then they'll go somewhere else! An ecologically balanced organic garden is not just about growing vegetables!
For planting in polytunnel or outside later:
You could sow alpine strawberries. 'Reugen' is a very productive, large-fruited variety from Chiltern seeds that fruits April to Nov. and will produce fruits this autumn if sown early. Also bulb onions, shallots, very early leeks, early spring/summer & non-hearting leafy type cabbages (collards), summer cauliflowers and autumn red cabbage.
I now grow all my main-crop onions from seed sown in modules in early March- this avoids the possibility of onion white rot. The varieties I like are 'Red Baron' and 'Golden Bear' (Organic Gardening Catalogue) - which is supposed to have some resistance to onion white rot. Onion white rot is also encouraged by low soil temperatures and wet weather - sowing seeds in modules means they're warmer, have better growing conditions and can then be planted out to make a nice even bed or row with no gaps. Sowing direct in the open ground can waste a lot of expensive seed and small seedlings are far more vulnerable to attacks by slugs, and losses due to poor weather etc.
Make sure that any seedlings germinated indoors or in a propagator are protected with fleece on cold nights after putting out into the tunnel - and if very cold weather is forecast also make sure to protect heated propagators with extra bubble wrap or fleece over the top at nights to preserve heat and save energy. I save every scrap of Christmas bubble wrap for this and also for tucking into odd small corners in the propagator to save heat loss! Also make sure that the compost is never too wet - if you think it may be- then draw some of it out by standing the modules on kitchen paper and newspaper for a while. Over-watering seedlings at this time of year will kill them faster than anything!
An alternative way to provide heat for early sowing for anyone aiming for micro self-sufficiency!
If you have enough room you could use my trick of rearing some day-old chicks under an infra-red heat lamp beneath the greenhouse or polytunnel staging! This is somethingI used to do every year! Chicks for egg or meat production need about 6 weeks of warmth and can then go outside on free range once they're fully feathered and are weather-proof! The small amount of rising heat keeps the greenhouse bench just warm enough to keep out frost if arranged properly - which means you don't need a heated propagator. Killing two birds with one stone in a manner of speaking .....or rather not ..... but raising them!! Don't try this unless you're already fairly experienced with poultry though, because you can lose small chicks very quickly if they get either too hot or too cold. You also need to keep rats away - they're as bad as foxes! I find that if I get day-old chicks in mid-March - then they will reliably come into lay around the beginning of August and will then lay continuously throughout the following winter without needing any additional light. I used to rear hundreds of chicks for laying and also broiler chickens for eating this way when I was a commercial organic poultry producer - and it works very well.
There's still plenty of timeto plantgarlic cloves outside for a crop of big bulbs this year
Most autumn planting varieties need cold weather for good root development - so in my experience at this time of year, it's really best to plant those varieties suitable for spring planting - as the seasons can be so unreliable now. We may get an extra mild spell in Jan. which would stop the autumn/winter planting varieties from developing their roots properly. If the ground is too wet and sticky - you can plant them in small pots or modules and plant them out in a few weeks time. The only garlic I've ever grown really successfully from a spring planting is 'Christo' - which I've always found very reliable. Choose firm, plump and healthy outside cloves from last year's crop, or buy certified virus-free ones from garden centres.
Donot plant cloves from supermarket-bought garlic bulbs! These will most likely be unsuitable for our climate and can bring in serious diseases like onion white rot. This can survive in the soil for up to 20 years and also be spread around the garden on your boots! For the same reason I never use onion or shallot sets in the garden. If you want some extra early onions - then grow some sets in pots or containers - starting them off under cover in their containers and then putting them outside later. This way they'll be even earlier than they would be if grown in the ground because their roots are much warmer - and if you're unlucky enough to bring in any diseases with them - you can just throw the compost away into the food/green waste recycling bin rather than spreading it round the garden - which you otherwise would if you put the used compost onto your compost heap!
Remember - organic growing is all about understanding your plant's needs and providing the very best growing conditions for them in order to minimise the risk of pest or disease attack as far as possible. This is exactly the same whether they are vegetables or ornamental plants.
On the kitchen windowsill you can sprout seeds and also sow 'microgreen' salads:
Things like like mustard and cress, radish, broccoli, kale etc. are easy to grow in jars or trays. Sprouting seeds are highly nutritious and can be a valuable addition to winter salads - young seedlings are actually higher in health promoting phytonutrients than older plants. Broccoli sprouts are particularly rich in these. Make sure you rinse them well and very regularly though if they're in jars - at least 2/3 times a day, with filtered water, to avoid bacteria or disease building up. I actually prefer growing them in trays on kitchen paper or compost, much in the same way all school children grow mustard and cress. They will often need watering twice a day even at this time of year in a warm kitchen, particularly as they get a bit bigger.
It's very important to use organic seeds for doing this - as these will not have been treated with potentially harmful pre-emergence fungicides (these seed treatments are forbidden under organic standards).
As I've already said - there really isn't a great deal to be gained from sowing things too early - there's also a greater risk of losses from disease etc. It's far better to wait until the end of the month when the light is a lot better and as a result any seedlings will be far sturdier. Unless you're in a desperate hurry to get ahead if you're busy, anything sown in another 3 or 4 weeks will definitely catch up and often actually overtake any seeds sown now. In the meantime - it's really better to get your compost and seed sowing kit all ready to go and also do some of the other jobs mentioned in the Veg. garden and Polytunnel sections of the diary - many of these will save you time later on in the spring when you will be busy preparing ground etc.(What a lovely thought - I can't wait!)
It's time to get on the starting blocks! Spring is only just round the corner! So if you haven't done seed orders yet here's another reminder - ORDER THOSE SEEDS NOW!
December contents: Whole fruit is good for you! And if organic - there's no chance you'll be eating toxic chemicals!.....What Fruit is Available to Pick Now?.....Urgent work that needs doing now.....Finish Winter Pruning - a very quick guide.....Grow your own lemons!.....And The best Christmas Present for a Fruit Gardener is?.....
Court Pendu Plat - perfect now but keeps until April or May
Russet apple Ashmead's Kernal is at it's best from now until April
Whole fruit is good for you! And if organic - there's no chance you'll be eating toxic chemicals!
Researchers have concluded that the 150 year old maxim - "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" is able to match the results of one of the most widespread drugs now used in modern medicine - and is "likely to have fewer side effects". That is the understatement of the century!! A study published two years ago year in the British Medical Journal said that prescribing an apple a day to all adults aged 50 and over would prevent or delay around 8,500 deaths per year from heart attacks and strokes - in other words similar to giving statins to everyone over 50 who is not already taking them! The big pharmaceutical giants won't like that! Statins are one of their biggest 'cash cows' ever! They are still making fortunes out of them, despite plenty of evidence now coming to light of side-effects being either under-reported or not actually reported at all. Millions of people have been needlessly medicated with drugs that have serious known side-effects. Here's a link to that study:
Nature packaged all fruits with plenty of healthy fibre and phytochemicals which have many proven health benefits for us - despite the fact that some people call them 'nature's poisons' - which is frankly total nonsense! Phytochemicals - or phytonutrients as they are otherwise called - evolved to protect plants naturally from pests and diseases or even sun damage and they do exactly the same for us. Well known examples of that are the antioxidant phytochemicals lycopenene and anthocyanin in tomato skins. On the other hand - the added 'free' sugars in many manufactured highly processed foods IS a huge problem for us. Products such as sweet pastries, biscuits, crisps etc are mostly high in added sugars and sugar is even added to 'ready meals', pasta sauces and curries for heaven's sake! The kind of cheap, industrially processed sugar that is normally used for these is High Fructose CornSyrup - or HFCS - which is made from genetically modified maize and is a form of very refined fructose which is instantly available to the body. Just like drinking a high percentage alcohol it has an immediate effect on the liver. Fruit juices can also be a problem - they raise blood sugar dramatically fast as they've had virtually all their natural fibre removed. I know some people say that we shouldn't be eating fructose and because fruit contains fructose we shouldn't be eating it - but whole, naturally grown fruit is an entirely different thing!
I really think a little common sense and balance is needed in the fruit debate. We evolved to eat natural, whole fruits with everything they contain - humans have been eating them for millions of years without harm - unlike ready meals, refined flour, HFCS and other more recent sugar-filled nasties! For millions of years fruit has been the perfectly-packaged, seasonal, 'ready meal' of choice for man and many other creatures too. I doubt that our closest relatives chimpanzees get type 2 diabetes - except perhaps those poor creatures confined in zoos with little natural exercise and given over-ripe bananas! Nobody ever became ill from eating whole fruits and vegetables grown naturally without chemicals, because it's almost impossible to over-eat whole foods that contain a lot of natural fibre - although believe me I've tried! The fibre has such a dramatic effect that you actually can't! There is no healthier food on the planet than whole organic fruit so don't let anyone make you feel guilty about eating it in moderation as a healthy treat. Mind you - it can be expensive if you have to buy it - so what better reason could you possibly have to grow your own organic fruit? And remember - you'll get plenty of healthy exercise and enormous satisfaction from growing it too!
What Fruit is Available to Pick Now?
You might think that there's no fresh fruit that you could pick at this time of year - and that you will have to rely on what you've got stored in your freezer or apple store - but if you have a polytunnel you'd be wrong! This year I once again grew Cape Gooseberries (Physalis Peruviana) in my recycled mayo. buckets. I've grown often them in the ground but they tend to take over to put it mildly as they're extremely vigorous! They're much better mannered in the 10 litre buckets - although still about 4ft/1.3m. high and wide! They're earlier too - possibly due to the root-restriction. They started ripening in late August and I'm still picking them - despite the recent low temperatures. I'm still picking plenty off the plants every week. They will also keep for several months in the salad drawer of the fridge if picked carefully, complete with their decorative little paper 'capes' which cover and protect the fruit. That's why they're called 'Cape' - not because they come from there! And they're not related to gooseberries either! They're actually a South American native - like so many of the Solanaceae/nightshade family - and are in fact related to potatoes! That's where the resemblance ends! They are absolutely delicious raw. When just ripe they have a mouthwatering, sherbetty/mangoey/pineappley flavour - after being kept in the fridge for a few weeks they tend to develop a slightly sweeter 'apricotty' flavour as well. You often see them on dessert plates in restaurants - but many people don't try them because they don't know what they are.
Semi-dehydrated cape gooseberries
Cape gooseberries - welcome fresh fruit in December
They're extremely easy to grow from seed started early in March - and will even grow outside happily in summer - but they do much better in a greenhouse or polytunnel where they will fruit for much longer - then you can have the fresh fruit for Christmas. Unlike tomatoes you don't even have to remove side-shoots because they grow as bushes. Ripening obviously slows up as the weather gets colder - but I'm still picking a few every day now with plenty stored in a bowl in the fridge. They're tender herbaceous perennials, so if you can keep plants over the winter - cutting them back to the base in spring if they haven't completely died back - they will fruit much earlier the next year. I did that with some planted in the tunnel beds years ago and will try to overwinter a few in pots this year - just keeping them barely 'ticking over' with the compost almost dry. They will fruit much earlier next year then. The bees love the flowers too. They freeze really well and dehydrate well too. When dried and concentrated, their flavour is sharply mouth-watering and delicious scattered over winter salads.
Cape gooseberries are very high in the phytonutrient Beta-Cryptoxanthin - which is a pro vit. A carotenoid and a very potent anti-cancer and anti-aging antioxidant, which also effective against arthritis, age-related macular degeneration or ARMD (protecting eyesight), hepatitis, asthma and rheumatism. It has no known side-effects in medicine. Although I do know of a slight one - if you're greedy and eat more than a dozen or so fruit a day - they are far more effective at motivating the gut even than syrup of figs!! - Be warned as they're quite addictive! They're also used in Chinese medicine for treating abscesses, coughs, fevers and sore throats.
They are absolutely divine on a Pavlova - particularly with a couple of passion fruit squeezed over them - makes your mouth water just to think of it! And as they are very high in pectin - they also make jam easily - but I think that's a crying shame unless you've got acres of them. They're so much nicer fresh, and at this time of year fresh fruit is so welcome. Supermarket prices for any fresh 'exotic' fruit are horrendous at this time of year - and these are actually far easier to grow than tomatoes! They are also delicious dipped in melted dark chocolate - but then - aren't most things!?
Urgent work that needs doing now!
Prune grapevines, indoors and outside NOW. This is urgent as doing them now gives them a chance to heal their wounds properly. This winter has been mild so far and yesterday I actually thought I saw some grape buds that were slightly swelling - or maybe that was my imagination! Whatever - if we have a mild spell after Christmas or in early January they can start into growth early - and with the sap rising fast could bleed to death, or be severely weakened. Grapes in containers are the first priority - they always seem to start growing just that little bit earlier than those planted in the ground. Although the upside of that is that you could give them their winter rest against a north facing wall - one of the many tricks that kitchen gardeners of centuries ago used to either bring forward, or hold back plants.
I've never found most grapes to be really successful outside here in this part of Ireland - we're much too cold and wet. In parts of the UK where it's drier, there could be some newer varieties of seedless grapes now that might be worth trying - but whether they are seedless or seeded varieties - you need to get an early fruiting variety and grow them on a warm, south-facing wall. I've seen Muscat of Alexandria for sale everywhere here in Ireland - and it's not at all suitable for outside here because it ripens far too late, even if you have an extremely warm spot outside for it. The same goes for Flame - a red seedless grape. They will ripen properly, but still pretty late, in a polytunnel or greenhouse. Outside grapes are always smaller-fruited too unless you thin them. The main problem outside would be any damp weather at the flowering stage hindering pollination - and also when fruiting as damp weather can cause rotting of bunches. Also of course there's the perennial problem of birds and wasps! I grow quite a few varieties in large pots and move them out of the tunnel in the winter as they're actually very hardy - but at flowering time up until fruiting time I bring them back inside - unless I want to delay ripening a particular variety, as I've mentioned before.
One variety of grape that I planted outside years ago - more for just decorative effect - is a small fruited one called 'Brandt'. It is one of the most reliable outdoor grapes available anywhere in the British Isles and does produce bunches of very small, deep red-brown, very sweet grapes prolifically in two out of three years here, trained over a garden arch - not even a south facing wall. If you just want one for throwing complete with pips into a smoothie - that would be one well worth trying. I took cuttings of it a couple of years ago as I'd read somewhere that it's high in phytochemicals like heart-healthy Resveratrol. I'd never actually tried it inside until last year - and even a young potted vine did well. It has the most stunning autumn colour too - so is worth growing just for it's decorative qualities! I think it may need some serious taming inside though - so it's well-suited to more restricted pot growing! It's fairly widely available online. I have a late couple of bunches of 'Flame' seedless grape which I'm hoping will keep until Christmas and as it's so close now, I think they might manage to make it! Next year with a couple of the later varieties I want to try the old fashioned method of cutting a bunch complete with a bit of stem - and putting the stem in a bottle of water in a darkened room in order to keep the grapes until Christmas -as the incredibly skilled and knowledgeable gardeners in the old walled gardens of great houses used to do.
As I mentioned last month - you can also take cuttings of grapes now - they're very easy. When you're pruning you should have plenty of propagating material. Take a length of stem - preferably ripened and brown - with three buds, cutting just below the bottom one. Then rub off the top and bottom buds - leaving the one in the middle. Pot the cutting up in a gritty, free draining compost with the remaining bud just at soil level - and put it somewhere shady and sheltered - where it won't get frozen - making sure it doesn't dry out - until spring - when it should start to sprout roots and grow. You should have a 90% success rate with this - as long as the cutting doesn't dry out. Layering is another way I've tried with 100% success - but as this takes almost a year - it obviously takes longer to produce a separate plant but is the most reliable method. You literally just bend a long stem down to the ground, cover it with soil and put a large cobble or large heavy stone about the size of a brick on top of that. Just keep it moist over the summer - don't let it dry out and it's virtually guaranteed to root. You can then just cut it off from the parent shoot and pot the rooted bit up. Another thing the old gardeners used to do, which I keep meaning to try, is training a stem of a late ripening variety of grape up through a hole in the bottom of a pot. They then used to cut off the rooted stem below the pot it had rooted into - complete with attached bunches of grapes - and use the potted plant as a centrepiece for a table flower arrangement at dinner. That would be a rather fun way of propagating another plant to bring inside in the autumn - although I think one might need a pretty large table!
Finish Winter Pruning - a very quick guide
Blackcurrants. Cut out most of the old fruited dark wood, leaving nicely spaced young (lighter wood) growth from this year. I usually do this in summer, combining my pruning with picking by cutting off fruiting branches, bringing them inside and picking off the fruit in comfort on the kitchen table. That takes care of two jobs at the same time and saves the backache! I would definitely recommend this method. Years ago we were told not to cut all of the branches off - just a third - but friends of mine in Herefordshire, who grow blackcurrants for a well-known cordial, use mechanical harvesting now to save labour costs and cut off all the branches off every year - with no ill effects - the bushes do need to be well fed though - and as this is done in the summer at harvesting time - the bushes have time to make new growth that year on which to fruit in the following year. Blackcurrants in particular love plenty of nitrogen - so if you have hens, putting them in the fruit cage under the blackcurrants in winter is a good idea - not for too long though or they will sour the ground. The hens will also pick up any gooseberry sawfly eggs which may be around - these can decimate your bushes in the spring and summer by stripping off all the leaves and just leaving the skeletons! It's often on any new bushes you might buy - but the hen trick works a treat! Nature's natural pest controllers!
Red and White currants, Gooseberries. Shorten new (paler wood) leader growths to 15cm/6" and fruiting laterals to about 5cm/2" - Both red and white currants fruit on small fruiting spurs (side shoots) growing off a permanent framework of branches - so in the early days you need to prune to build up that framework - only pruning whole branches out when the bush gets older if it becomes too congested. Recently on TV I saw a so-called 'expert' telling people to cut redcurrants down to the ground each year - I think they'd be a bit disappointed with their crops!! Cuttings of all these should still work if you want to try some of the prunings - just stick them in the ground somewhere out of the way! Layering also works well for them too - but stick a large brick or stone onto the bit of stem you want to root or otherwise they may spring up again out of the soil when half rooted next year!
Raspberries - Onsummer fruiting varietiesonly - you should have cut back all the old (brown and woody) canes which fruited in the summer to allow the new (green and sappy) ones room to develop. Autumn fruiting varieties need different pruning though - all the old canes which fruited this autumn would actually carry another crop next June - even the older varieties like 'Heritage' and 'Autumn Bliss' will do this - although theirs would be much smaller and hardly worth having. Those two varieties are also extremely rampant and can become seriously troublesome weeds! They also don't have too much flavour. The newer 'primocane' varieties like 'Joan J' and 'Brice' however, will have delicious fruit in early summer which are just as big as their autumn crop - so leaving at least some of their canes to fruit again is really well worth it.
Contrary to conventional advice (just like so many things I do!) - I cut down only about half of the fruited canes each winter, leaving some of those which fruited in the autumn, as they'll carry another crop early the next summer. After that they'll be cut right down too, making new growth then which will also fruit in autumn, but slightly later. Doing this staggers the crop really well, but don't leave all of the old canes un-pruned, as you may exhaust the plants and restrict air circulation to young growth coming up. If you're tight for space - I wouldn't bother growing only the summer fruiting varieties at all. The newer primocane autumn-fruiting varieties will give you a crop lower down on the previous year's canes in June and then again from August onwards on the new canes formed in the spring until the first frosts - so you get double the crop from those canes - and they also seem less prone to problems. These newer varieties are far more worth the space they permanently occupy. I haven't seen either 'Joan J' or 'Brice' available here anywhere - so you will have to get them mail order if you want those varieties. 'Joan J' has been a huge success grown in large pots in the west tunnel this year too - I only picked the last at the end of last week.Unfortunately although there are some green ones still developing on the canes - this damp weather has made them more vulnerable to botrytis (grey mould) so they probably won't ripen fully. I'll split the plants in half and re-pot them all after Christmas. That will be a lovely job for a cold damp day with the prospect of even more delicious fruit next year!
Blackberries and Loganberries/Tayberries - cut out all of the old fruited canes/branches from last summer. Tie in young growths which will fruit next year, to stop them getting damaged by whipping around in our strong winter winds!
Don't prune any outside stone fruits like plums peaches and cherries - at this time of year! Doing this could cause silver leaf disease. You should prune them in the spring when the sap is rising. If you have peaches or nectarines standing outside in pots bring them into the tunnel now if you have room - this avoids peach leaf curl, which is caused by rain washing the disease spores down into the buds as they emerge in spring. This is never a problem on peaches grown permanently in the ground in tunnels.
Apples and pears. Prune out dead, diseased, crossing and overcrowded branches first. On a young tree - aiming for an open cup shape so you get good air circulation is extremely important in our often damp climate here. Get a good book on fruit pruning if you're interested in training trees into espaliers etc, or even better send for a really good fruit catalogue, they usually have pruning guides in them, and are free! It would take far too long to explain the various intricacies here! Alan Titchmarsh's pruning book is excellent if you want to buy one.
Order fruit trees for planting when soil conditions are suitable. Mail order is the only way to get many heritage varieties. There's not much choice in most of the garden centres, they tend to sell Golden Delicious and Granny Smith (only suitable for continental climates!) or Cox's Orange Pippin (only suitable for the dry climate of Kent! Queen Cox or Holstein Cox is better) The garden centres tell me that's because most people only know those names and so they ask for them as they're the ones they see in supermarkets, but they're really not suitable for growing in Ireland, unless you're in a particularly warm dry spot that I haven't yet discovered! Why don't garden centres tell people that - they don't seem to care if people are disappointed as long as they buy them then! Rather short-sighted as the customer won't come back! Wherever you get them - make sure they've got a really good list - which has plenty of information on root stocks and the flowering, fruiting and ripening/eating times of particular varieties. It's amazing how little information some websites give! There are some good nurseries, but always ask what varieties they have - and on which root stocks. Don't tell them what you want first - before they tell you what they have! Some are like horse dealers - they'll tell you whatever you want to hear!! 35 years ago, when I knew an awful lot less, I was sold a few 'pups'! You learn by experience! But sadly with fruit trees it can take a few years to see what you've got - by which time you've probably got an ailing unproductive tree, have lost 5-6 years and it's often too late!
As I grew up on the edge of the Vale of Evesham,(one of the main fruit growing areas of the UK) and we had a 6 acre orchard of lovely old trees, when I planted my orchard here, I wanted to have a good range of varieties. So I planted both historic and new cookers and eaters, to ensure that I could have a good variety of apples all year round, straight from the tree, as well as some that would store through the winter. I planted over 50 trees, and I've planted many more since. I've grown many varieties on various root stocks and believe that the only really suitable root stock for most Irish soils is the M26 or failing that MM106, these give a healthy, not too vigorous tree roughly 15 feet high (can be kept smaller) which fruits well. I've tried M9's which I find weak and very prone to disease in our wet climate on my heavy Meath clay and a few years ago as a trial, I planted some on the newish 'Coronet' dwarfing rootstock in the raised beds. Sadly I think this will probably be similar and only really suitable for well-drained, perfect conditions in tubs and pots as well. I don't think so far that they will ever give a worthwhile crop if you're trying to self-sufficient in your own fruit like us, rather than just having a decorative bit of fun! It will also be a few years before I can truly judge just how disease resistant they are - an important consideration in our often damp climate - particularly growing organically. I would never use any pesticide or fungicide sprays. They don't look too promising though. They're expensive too - about four times the price of any variety on M26 - which will go on producing increasingly abundant and healthy crops for many years!
One variety really worth trying, if you like 'Cox's Orange Pippin' - is 'Holstein' (or 'Queen Cox'). It tastes exactly the same as Cox's, is crisp, delicious and four or five times the size! Picked at the end of Oct., it keeps crisp until Christmas.(stored in an old freezer in carrier bags - far better but naturally not as decorative as those lovely wooden apple shelves with trays) Holstein is also very disease resistant, but needs two other pollinator apples nearby, as it's a triploid variety - meaning that it has no good pollen of it's own. It's also better grown as a bush tree, rather than trained, as triploid varieties are more vigorous (another beginner mistake I made! It keeps trying valiantly to escape and having left it un-pruned for a couple of years because of my broken shoulder - I no have a major job of pruning to do!! Bramley and Ashmead's Kernal are also triploid varieties and behave the same way. In suburban back gardens there are usually apples of some sort growing nearby which can serve as pollinators. Otherwise James Grieve (early mid-season cooker/eater) and Grenadier (early cooker) are both excellent pollinators for it. Or look for something else which flowers at the same time - any good catalogue will tell you the exact pollination groups of trees. I don't like those 'family trees', they're a nice idea and a novelty but they don't give worthwhile crops, and can be very complicated to prune, even for the experienced fruit grower, who can usually recognise which branch is which! And if you don't prune, they will quickly degenerate into a disease-ridden, unproductive muddle! They can't just be left to their own devices - so if you want just one tree - then find a good self-pollinating variety with fruit that keeps for a little while.
Grow your own lemons!
If you're looking for something extremely decorative, incredibly perfumed, delicious and great for impressing your gardening friends, there's nothing better! Imagine home grown lemon sorbet at Christmas - or a home grown slice of lemon in your guests' G&T! I've always been fascinated by them, and because it was impossible to get organic lemons anywhere 30 years ago, I've been growing them ever since - even though organically grown lemons are available most of the year now. They're much the best of the citrus family for beginners, and do produce a worthwhile crop most years.(They're actually worth growing just for the wonderfully scented flowers alone!) They just need a little understanding and TLC, then they're not difficult if you can bring them inside in the winter, away from hard frost. They're fine outside all summer, sheltered from the wind. They are actually acid loving plants, which means you treat them like Rhododendrons and water with rainwater. ONLY water them when they dry out - nothing will kill them quicker than their roots sitting in water! You can get a citrus feed (chemical) or I top dress in spring with 'Osmo' organic all purpose granules and feed with Osmo liquid feed, or nettle liquid feed later, as they like a high nitrogen feed, but they hate potash, so don't use tomato feed as I saw one article recommending. Mind you - that 'expert' even got his phosphates and potash mixed up!!
The main pest of all citrus trees is scale insect, which seems to just appear from nowhere sometimes, but it's easily dealt with using an organic insecticidal fatty acid soap spray. Don't use it when the young very tender shoots are developing in spring - or you'll burn them. And never spray in strong sunshine - it has the same effect. I've had some success with Navel oranges, but not much with grapefruit, which really need more warmth. The easiest lemon varieties are Four Seasons, Ponderosa and Meyer's (an easy to grow, delicious, sherbetty-tasting, old hybrid). Aldi have really good lemon trees in the spring every year, around 20 euros, about half the price of most garden centres. They're quite hardy, but a very hard frost will kill some of the small overwintering fruit and some of the young growth even if they are in the tunnel, although a cover of fleece will usually prevent this. It won't kill the trees though if you keep the compost pretty dry in the very coldest weather - and only start to water again when you see a little new growth starting in spring - often from the trunk. Limequats - a cross between a lime and a kumquat are hardy, easy and delicious too. I was in Johnstown Garden Centre near Naas in Co. Kildare the other day - and they have a good variety of really nice citrus plants for sale - they would make a super luxury Christmas present for a keen gardener.
I've never been able to resist trying to sow anything from seed, particularly if it's free! A fun thing to try with any pips from your Christmas clementines and satsumas is to sow them individually in small yogurt pots, in a free draining seed compost. Choose the very fattest pips. They must be sown in separate pots because there is a fairly good chance that a few of the fattest pips may produce more than one seedling! These 'twins' or 'triplets' are then known as 'poly-embryonic' seedlings, meaning that only one will be a true seedling - and any additional plantlets resulting from the pip will be exactly the same as if you had taken a cutting from the parent plant! When these are an inch or so high, in spring, separate them very gently (they carefully pull apart quite easily if in a sandy, well drained compost like the Klassman organic seed compost) and grow them on in an acid well drained compost.
These 'poly-embryonic' seedlings will eventually grow on and fruit, perhaps in as little as three or four years. You won't know which are the 'true' (like a cutting) or 'mongrel' seedlings until that happens, but the mongrels are often the most vigorous. It's easy, fascinating and fun if you have the time and patience! In the meantime, they make handsome small evergreen trees for a greenhouse or conservatory. I've had great success with them over the years. I also grew dozens of Kiwi fruit from seed over 25 years ago - very easy, and some of them have now taken over my 'jungle' area in the garden, with their beautiful huge jungly-looking red and green plush leaves just like velvet. Most exotic looking! They are extremely vigorous though - so need a lot of space! Avocados are worth trying too - they make great indoor foliage plants. Try some of these and you might have some home grown Christmas presents to give away next year - so much nicer than bought ones!
And The best Christmas Present for a Fruit Gardener is?......
A really terrific Christmas present for any keen fruit grower is a dehydrator. I bless the day when I bought mine - I absolutely love it and I use it for so many things!! You can see some of the delicious results above in the Cape Gooseberry picture - and here are some semi-dehydrated frozen peach pieces which I took a photo of earlier this week. They have the most intensely delicious, peachy flavour that you could possibly imagine, just like chewy peach sweeties. I prefer them only semi-dehydrated to just a pleasantly chewy leather-hardness, when they retain far more of their flavour and also nutrients. Again they are absolutely delicious on salads - but also utterly irresistible whenever I go to the freezer for something - so they don't tend to last too long!! I semi-dry Lakemont Seedless grapes in it too - to make the most heavenly sultanas. I don't like anything dried until it's crisp unless I'm actually making veg crisps - another naughty but very delicious use for the dehydrator! Dehydrating is a great way to use any damaged fruit which might go off before you could use them - so they prevent food waste too. Actually - a good dehydrator is a blessing and it's something that people rarely buy for themselves. That is - unless they're a very greedy fruit geek like me!!
I Hope You Have a Very Happy Fruity Christmas Everyone & A Healthy Fruit-full New Year!
Thank you so much to all the people who have taken the time to write and thank me for my work - or thanked me on Twitter.I really enjoy sharing my original ideas and 40 years experience of growing and cooking my own organic food with you. It's most satisfying and naturally also very complimentary if others find "inspiration" in my work. - But if you do happen to copy it, or repeat it in any way online - I would appreciate it very much if you would please mention that it originally came from me. Thank you.
In the picture above, taken over 30 years ago, I'm explaining to a group how to re-build soil fertility using organic methods. They were some of my organic box scheme customers from the early 1980s and also members of our local Fingal Green party (who included our future Green Minister for Horticulture)
A 'soiled' planet?
I hope you'll forgive that pun but our forbears had far more respect for the soil than we have today. Researching methods of restoring soil to fertility has naturally always been one of my pet subjects as I started here 36 years ago on appallingly degraded and lifeless soil. Many people take soil for granted and think of it as just so much 'dirt' - something which simply anchors crops while we pour on the chemicals! They don't appreciate it until they haven't got it any more! Some scientists decided back in the mid 20th century that chemicals were a better and more profitable (for them!) way of growing our food than the way Nature has evolved to over countless millennia! How wrong they were when you look at the amount of ill-health, destruction of biodiversity and climate change which those farming methods have caused. You can't grow healthy food for humans, farm animals or biodiversity if you don't have a healthy living soil to start with - as I said at the beginning of this month's polytunnel diary.
As I'd been invited to talk about soil at the recent launch of the European People4Soil campaign at our National Botanic Gardens - I was recently looking back through my treasured collection of old Soil Association mags which I was given by some kind friends many years ago. I was looking for some fresh inspiration in order to motivate people to value soil more highly. The collection starts from the very first ones back in the 1930's. So many people all around the world were warning even then of the dire consequences of using synthetic pesticides and other man made chemicals - but they weren't heeded. Of course - there's far more money to be made out of patenting chemicals than there is out of encouraging Nature! Multinationals can't make massive profits from that! So farmers and gardeners trust in Nature was deliberately undermined and they were encouraged to believe that it wasn't possible to grow crops without them! The health of the planet's soils has declined just as sharply as the profits of the multinationals have risen - the health of our crops has also declined and there is now the biggest epidemic of NCDs - or non-communicable diseases (as diabetes, cancer, dementia) etc are known - in human history. The consequences of this greed and blind ignorance are now coming back to haunt us in the shape of antibiotic resistance, an exponential rise in the incidence so called 'modern lifestyle diseases' and also in the global destruction of soils to the point where a great deal of land is no longer capable of growing vital crops, and soils are devoid of any humus and carbon to hold them together, are washing away into rivers and creating 'dead zones' in the seas - where the nutrients running off from farmland eventually make their way to the coast killing off marine life. In some parts of the world, it would take nature many hundreds of years to restore soils to proper fertility again. All this in a world with a rapidly increasing population! Even on our country roads here in Ireland we can see soil pouring out of gateways onto roads after heavy rains - and flooding in winter is now a regular occurrence. There's no humus or carbon left in that soil to hold it together any more or give it any resilience against extremes of climate - and this is something which will be happening more in the future with climate change. That's because over the last 40 or 50 years in particular, farmers have been literally mining all of the carbon and humus that has built up over millennia - pouring chemicals onto it and putting nothing back in the form of composts and manures to hold thw sopil together. The great Sir David Attenborough said "Anyone who believes in indefinite growth on a physically finite planet is either mad or an economist!" - Or both perhaps?
People who think that peak oil is the major problem facing us are so wrong. Peak soil is our real problem! We could do without oil - but we can't survive without the soil, despite what some proponents of hydroponics would have you believe. - and neither can the planet! A healthy, living soil doesn't just grow things - it traps and sequesters huge quantities of carbon - more than anything else on the planet. An unhealthy, dying soil that has been destroyed by chemicals does exactly the opposite, releasing carbon rapidly into the atmosphere as it degrades and adding massively to climate change. Most people don't appreciate the complex biological processes that are going on right under their feet! The health of the soil that feeds us is vital to our own health, as well as the health of the planet. Hydroponics can't grow healthy crops - feeding plants with the chemicals or even organic nutrients that WE think they need can never produce the same healthy plants that nature does. There's an awful lot going on in soil that despite all our modern technology - we still haven't actually discovered yet. We are only just beginning to understand that there is a hugely complex web of billions of organisms in a healthy soil which are all dependent on each other in able to be able to do their job. The plants then in turn depend on this web of life to produce the compounds to keep them healthy - the soil is quite literally their immune system. We need to understand this interdependent food web better fast - if we are to to restore resilience to our soils!
It's not that hard to make a difference!
There is something positive that each of us can do right now to restore soil.We can each make a change to our own small little corner of the planet - indeed we each have a responsibility to do so - every one of us. Our little bit may not seem much but it can make a difference. One of he ways we can do this is by growing as much of our own food as possible - in a low carbon, non-polluting, peat-free and organic way that enhances - not destroys nature! If we can't grow food ourselves - then we should support regenerative organic agriculture as much as we can by buying organic. It's is the only truly sustainable agriculture - the way that Nature does it! The soil gave us life - and if we destroy it what hope is there for our children? Surely anyone who has children must think about their future and worry the mess we're leaving for them to clear up - unless they're entirely selfish? As the famous quote says - "We do not inherit the earth - we borrow it from our children"............I would add "We borrowed the soil from our children and we have squandered their inheritance!" But we can rebuild and restore that inheritance by using organic methods.
Using compost, green manures, cover crops, mulching and not digging deeply which disturbs fragile fungal systems are all ways we can rebuild soil. By using compost I don't mean dumping tons of manure or compost and leaving it open to the weather either - that just runs off, pollutes groundwater and emits greenhouse gases into the atmosphere as I mentioned last month. Biochar is an interesting and increasingly popular way to restore carbon to soil and hold on to fertility too. Biochar is basically charcoal that has been made by burning wood by a method known as pyrolysis - or in other words in the absence of oxygen, just as the woodsmen charcoal makers still do. This was used by some Amazonian Indian civilisations in the past to make their soil more fertile and hold onto nutrients. I've always used shredded prunings and wood chips to introduce more carbon and humus into my compost heap ever since I've been gardening and it's always worked extremely well. Next year I'm going to have a shot at making my own biochar too - from the biomass willows which I planted 25 years ago in the 'wet woodland' habitat at the bottom of the wildlife meadow. I also have some Miscanthus or elephant grass which I'm planting around the hen runs to use up the nitrogen in their nitrogen-rich droppings. It's another of the plants which is recommended for making biochar - but basically any woody prunings will do
We gardeners are always hopeful and optimistic folk - how can we be anything else! We know that the summer will come - we hope for some sun and that the gentle rain will fall. We know that despite the many "slings and arrows" of climate change, we will all still enjoy at least some delicious harvests again next year - an age old certainty. "Blow, blow, thou winter wind...." Shakespeare wrote - he must have been a gardener - as he deeply appreciated and wrote so eloquently about all the seasons. Back in those days people really understood the true meaning of living by the seasons - they had no choice! And they at least could be sure that the seasons would follow their same predictable pattern every year. These days sadly we can no longer rely on that age old assumption. They also had far more respect for Nature than many in our modern, 'so called' more 'enlightened'(?) society. Man has been disrespectful of Nature - ungrateful and wasteful of her riches so abundantly provided. We have abused Nature to the point where we can no longer rely on her generosity. In our stupidity and arrogance we've destroyed so much of incalculable value. Albert Einstein said that "only two things are infinite - the universe and human stupidity".......I so hope that he was wrong and that people will learn to value soil before it is too late..
Don't walk on wet soil - or dig it!
The ground outside in the vegetable garden is so wet now - that the very short days just don't give it any chance to dry up at all. There's nothing you can usefully do so you're better staying off soil to avoid damaging it's structure. You can keep busy just tidying up, building compost heaps, sorting pots and maintaining tools. Don't worry - there will be more that enough proper gardening to be done again soon! For now we can read seed catalogues, good books and just dream. I always think that gardening is a lot about looking forward and dreaming of the next year's plans too - and that's so important! Whether it's vegetables, flowers, trees or neatly clipped box you most dream about - they're all beautiful dreams! It's the winter solstice very soon - all around me I can already see early spring flowers like hellebores and primroses in bud and gearing up for next year too! Even the early daffodils are poking their noses above ground. Spring is only just around the corner! Nature's eternal optimism never fails to lift the gardener's spirits.
It's really exciting when the seed catalogues start dropping through the letterbox too, with lots of tempting new varieties, and often these days a few more good old ones that are being re-introduced after years of not being available. There's nothing like a bit of 'HRT' to cheer up a cold day! - Horticultural Retail Therapy that is! Much more entertaining than watching endless recycled stupid Christmas films! Seeds are terrific value! Where else in life can you buy so much hope for the future, a real sense of achievement, good health, pure enjoyment and countless delicious meals for less than the price of a Lottery ticket - with far more reliable returns?! No matter how cold it is - when I'm looking at all those colourful seed catalogues - spring seems only just around the corner, the eternal gardener's optimism returns and everything is possible! Despite the awful weather right now - it's hard to keep a gardener's optimism down!
I really can't wait to start seed sowing again! I discovered two new red cabbage varieties in the last couple of years. I always love experimenting with new varieties - you never know which one may just turn out to be a real star - and the anticipation makes life a bit more exciting! The pointed red cabbage pictured here is a new one which I tried in 2013 - it held really well for quite a long time once it was ready to cut. A paler than usual attractive pinky-red, it's tender and delicious in a coleslaw or gently simmered with just a little apple juice and butter, and it was a real find.In 2014year I tried the round-headed 'Red Rookie' from Marshalls, which was another great discovery. I cut the last of them 3 weeks ago and now have a dozen of them stored now in the cold shed where they should keep well for a couple of months. 'Red Rookie' made really tight, heavy heads, again great shredded for pickling or coleslaw, stood for longer than any other red cabbage I've ever grown, didn't split despite several bouts of torrential rain and tastes delicious. I'll definitely be growing it again. Red cabbages are even higher in cancer-fighting phytochemicals like sulforaphane than the green ones, and in addition also contain heart-healthy anthocyanins because of their deep purple colour. I made some fab pickled cabbage a couple of weeks ago with Red Rookie, some organic cider vinegar, a bit of salt and sugar and a few coriander seeds. It's yummy scattered on a mixed green salad almost like a dressing, and you don't need another thing - except a piece of warm crusty brown bread. (Don't overdo the coriander seeds though - as I did on the first try - or it will taste like it's been marinaded in strong perfume! Ugh!!) Do try these two varieties next year - everyone who saw them was impressed.
Pickled 'Red Rookie' cabbage - simply delicious!
Making compost isn't rocket science!
When I'm giving talks, compost is the one thing people seem to get really hung up about - it's really easy - nature does it without any help quite naturally! But just as with everything else - Nature does it more slowly. It's only when us impatient humans intervene and want instant results that problems always seem to happen! Tidy up any dead or diseased plant material and bury it well in the compost heap. The exception to this is potatoes. Never put any 'blighty' potatoes or foliage in there as I saw recommended recently - unless your heap is huge and gets hot enough to fry eggs! The other no-no is any dodgy onion peelings which could possibly carry onion white rot. As always when making compost - make sure there's a good mix of wet and dry, green and brown, soft and fibrous material, cover it to prevent the rain getting in, and you'll be OK. it's mostly common sense, so if you're new to doing it, don't get in a state and think it has to be perfect - just do it! And cover it! Nature will do the rest. If you just throw any plant remains in a heap somewhere eventually they would rot down, but if you organise it a bit better, by putting it in a bin or a neat heap and covering it to keep the weather out - it will happen a lot more quickly and you won't lose all the nutrients out of it. It's a bit like making a cake really - and the results smell almost as delicious! At the Botanic Gardens last year got a lot of laughs when I admitted to being a serial compost sniffer! Seriously though - there are microorganisms in healthy soils and good compost that can actually relieve stress when inhaled - that's one of the reasons why gardening and being in nature are so relaxing. So go ahead and try it - happy sniffing!!
Making a new compost bin is a great job for a cold day in winter. If you've got enough room, pallets secured with posts at each corner are just the job to make a heap about 1m square, or even bigger if possible, which is a good size to get it to heat up really well in order to kill weed seeds etc. It also keeps it relatively tidy too. The bigger the heap, the better it heats - but you do need to get quite a lot of material together to start it. You'll need two or preferably three compartments, one for adding new material to as you have it, which you then turn upside down into the next one to mix in air and continue rotting, and one for made compost which has been turned in there as it is ready for use. In practice though, you can get away with two, taking out the best from the second heap as you turn it. That keeps everything neat and tidy. I grow comfrey plants beside my compost heaps, they take up any nutrients which may leach out into the surrounding soil, I also compost all the dog poo in a separate heap of it's own, away from that area, which is then used to fertilise the comfrey. The comfrey I grow is Bocking 14, (a high-potash, non-seeding strain developed by the late great Lawrence Hills decades ago) it's used to make a high potash liquid feed, as a weed smothering mulch, minced up as a treat for the worm bin or just put on the compost heap. Nettles also grow there, without any help, as they do! They are mixed with the comfrey for the liquid feed or cut before they flowerto put on the heaps as a great activator, as they are high in nitrogen too. Absolutely nothing should be wasted!
A very funny incident, when I happened to be spending a few days working in the HDRA advisory department, many years ago, picking out slides for lectures and an organic roadshow that I was setting up at the time. A chap rang up the advisers to ask if he should put his tea leaves on the compost heap. He was extremely worried as he'd heard that they possibly contained traces of aluminium!....The reply was "well you're drinking it aren't you.....?!"!! After he'd rung off the whole place collapsed into general mirth!! A little common sense never goes astray!! They were such a great bunch at the HDRA (now Garden Organic), always helpful, cheerful and encouraging and extremely supportive of our efforts to promote organics here in Ireland in the early days. The late Lawrence Hills came over here in the early 1980's, and made a terrific impression on me and all who met him. He was such a powerhouse of energy, enthusiasm and ideas you could almost have run the National Grid off him! Alan and Jackie Gear were also both tremendously helpful and supportive too - and are greatly missed now on the UK organic scene since their retirement. In some ways I feel the organic gardening scene has run out of steam just a little lately - although there are a great many people trying to do good work.
Is there anything much to be done now outside?
Although December is a quiet time in terms of sowing and planting there's still plenty of things you can be getting on with which will give you a real head start next year. If you want to warm up and work off some of that Christmas pud. (or other excesses!) turning the compost heap and mixing the contents is great calorie-burning activity! If it's not very well broken down, you can add in some fresh poultry manure or other high nitrogen additions (certain ones spring to mind when thinking of Christmas excesses that I won't mention here!) this really gets it heating up again, which is just what you want. Make sure compost heaps are securely covered with something waterproof to stop possible leaching and nutrient loss, and adding another insulating layer to help keep any warmth in is also a good idea. When the heaps have started to cool a bit, the worms will begin working slowly in them if they're not too cold.
Just as in November, don't dig ground and leave it uncovered because of possible nutrient leaching and carbon loss. I'm astonished at the number of 'experts' who still tell you to smother all vacant ground with manure or compost, or dig it in and just leave it open to the elements for the winter! It appears to me that a lot of their advice is just taken straight out of old fashioned, out of date books! Never leave empty ground uncovered all winter. A cover crop or green manure cover is best - but if I need a patch early in spring then on my heavy clay I find covering securely with black plastic or something else waterproof and light excluding to stop weed seeds germinating and stop nutrients leaching works well. Then I just uncover it occasionally on fine days to let the birds deal with any pests, slug eggs etc. they can find. The robins in the garden will follow me and watch - flying down the minute I uncover anything, to be first to grab the goodies! If the bed is for early carrots or other fine seed, then in mid January I replace the cover with a clear plastic cover (usually cut from left over tunnel polythene) this warms up the soil and encourages any lurking weed seeds near the surface to germinate. I then uncover just before sowing in Feb. or March and pass over it lightly with the flame weeder, this kills off any weed seedlings on the surface and creates a clean, so called 'stale' seedbed to sow the carrots into. That gives them a head start without competition and weedy hiding places for slugs! It also barbecues slugs nicely - nasty person!
Make a good cropping plan now if you haven't done so already (see Nov.) - it helps so much when you're ordering seeds - especially if like me, you tend to get carried away and order far too much! The catalogues all look so tempting. And as I advised in the 'What to Sow now' section - do get your seeds ordered before the good varieties run out. Stick to varieties you know will do well in your garden, trying one or two new ones each year. If you're new to gardening - ask an experienced gardening neighbour - this is where local GIY or other gardening groups are useful. They may have meetings once a month in many areas where you can meet other local gardeners. This is really helpful as climates and soils differ so much all over Ireland and the UK. When I'm ordering seeds, I like to try one a few new varieties each year, because a lot of research is being carried out into disease resistance etc., which is all good news for organic growing. The one thing many proponents of only growing so-called 'Heritage' varieties seem to forget is - that our climate is changing and we need plant breeding to continue producing suitable varieties for the future - as well as retaining the best from the past - if we want to be self-sufficient in food in the future.
Order your seed potatoes as soon as you can if you haven't already. At the end of the month or during January you could plant a few 'extra-earlies' in pots to be ready at Easter if you've got your own sprouted seed saved from your earlies this year. You can still plant garlic in pots, if the soil is wet, to plant out later.
If you're thinking ofmaking raised beds, and you have somewhere dry to work like a garage or shed, then you could be painting the planks for the sides with a good organic wood stain/preservative, to give it time really soak in. I made my beds from 7"x 2" new rough timber, and put on 3 coats of 'Donnos' wood stain/preservative as recommended by Manfred Wandel of Fruit Hill Farm - it looks good and also seems quite water resistant. I used metal brackets on the end corners of the beds. The sides are secured with several 2ft lengths of 1/2" approx steel 'rebars', from my local builders suppliers, driven into the ground until the top is just below the top of the planks to avoid them catching on things. These won't rot and are neater than wood. The total cost worked out at roughly 1 euro per foot, which I think is pretty good. Recycled timber is fine as long as it hasn't been treated with anything nasty, but will still need a few coats of preservative. (Pressure treated decking planks, which I saw one 'expert' recommending recently, are full of toxic chemicals which can leach out into the soil when wet! Nice!!)
I then needed a lot of topsoil,which was a major problem. I am gradually replacing all the raised beds in the kitchen garden with a new higher edging, they were originally minimum-dug 'deep beds' 30 years ago, but now need to be a lot higher as my back needs to bend a lot less! I priced topsoil on the internet a few years ago - at anything between 99-150 euros a ton it would have cost around 6,500 euros, added to which, it would most definitely not be organic (although they'd probably tell you anything - a bit like horse dealers!) Then I had a brainwave! I could get my own topsoil by digging out the large wildlife pond I had always wanted, in the wet spot at the bottom of the field which was full of brambles and scrub. In June 2010 - my local builder, who loves to do anything a bit different, came along with his digger and I stood waving a flag (no this way...that way) and feeling very powerful! I then lined it with old polytunnel covers I had been hoarding for years, waiting for an opportunity to recycle them. The whole thing cost roughly 1/6th of what the topsoil alone would have cost, gave me a very neat solution to three different problems - and endless joy! I've since spent many happy hours watching dragonflies and bats hunting over the pond, and even watched as a female dragonfly laid her eggs on the edge. They moved in incredibly quickly, within 3 days of it filling with rainwater, probably because I have a smaller pond elsewhere in the garden and it seemed a much better and bigger 'des-res.'! It's such a peaceful place to sit on a summer evening - listening to the breeze gently rustling the surrounding birch and willow trees.
But most importantly - don't forget you can grow in almost anything - as long as it will hold soil or compost deep enough for roots and has some drainage. Don't wait until you have the perfect garden - start in a container or two now. Even a broken bucket could grow a patch of salad leaves - and they're far less likely to be eaten by slugs when up out of reach a bit. So just do it - and worry about any cosmetic issues later! Picking some of your own fresh and healthy food is the important thing - however small your plot or pot! A friend of mine is now partially disabled and her son, who works in the building trade, has collected some old baths that were being thrown out of buildings that were being re-furbished and they make fantastic raised beds in her small garden. Next year she' planning to put low fencing around them and grow flowers in from of them! Where there's a will there's a way as the old saying goes!
"Blow, blow thou winter wind!"
This is something I forgot to put at the end of the polytunnel diary for this month. If you have polytunnels - make sure you have a roll of tunnel tape ready for mending if the worst happens! I'm always worried about flying branches with polytunnels - and I almost hold my breath until the wind stops!! I've had a lot of sleepless nights over the last couple of weeks - listening for that unmistakable sound of ripping polythene - which once you've heard you never forget! It is possible to mend them if they're not too bad but the best thing to do if your tunnel starts to get badly ripped - unless the weather suddenly calms and you get a chance to fix it - is to just take a knife, cut it all the way round and just let it go. That way you may save the frame - and that's the expensive bit. It takes courage - but I know from experience that if you don't get the chance to do that - then the frame can become so badly distorted that it's beyond repair!
The eve of the winter solstice is when I celebrate my New Year's Eve - usually with a few fellow gardener friends, talking about gardening (what else?), with a glass or two of wine and nibbling a bit of good cheese, perhaps making a little music and having a bit of 'craic'. It's what I like to think of as the 'Gardener's New Year's eve! A time when we look back over the closing year and are just on the very brink of the next. This year Gerry Kelly and I will be doing our Solstice Special 'From Tunnel to Table' programme on LMFM Radio as usual - and the audio recording will be here on the blog later.
Just in case you don't get time to read any more here on the blog before Christmas - (also just in case I don't get time to write it!)..................... I HOPE MOST SINCERELY THAT YOU WILL ALL HAVE A VERY PEACEFUL, WARM AND HAPPY CHRISTMAS - SURROUNDED BY THOSE YOU LOVE MOST - wherever in the world you are..............X
Poultry tips for December
If you have any hens - then make sure you keep them as warm and dry as possible at this time of year. Remember - happy hens are healthy hens - and happy, healthy hens lay more eggs - even through the winter! Take out any droppings every day so that they don't get any respiratory problems which can happen quickly if they're breathing in stale, ammonia-filled air. Also make sure they have fresh hay in their nest boxes. Don't forget they're in their house for longer when the days are shorter. My system of 'orange segment' runs which I change around frequently is working well despite wet weather. I love to see them rush out in the mornings to investigate a new patch! They'll tend to slow up a bit on the egg production now for a few weeks - but in mid Jan. they'll start to get back to normal as long as you've looked after them well. I grow a couple of rows of chard and sugar loaf chicory specifically for them every winter - giving them a bunch of leaves every day as well as any other bits of waste from the garden like outside cabbage leaves etc.- they adore them and clear up every scrap. I think it makes a huge difference to their health - and you can certainly notice it in their eggs too - they have really rich orange yolks. If you have a little space in your tunnel you could even be really kind and give them a winter 'mini-break' by penning them in there for a couple of weeks if you have a suitable small house for them - they love the warmth and dryness in the polytunnel. The only trouble then is the foxes which may eat through the side of the tunnel trying to get at them - something which actually happened to me many years ago!
Make sure you have plenty of layers pellets in for them as many farm shops close for several days over Christmas and New Year and even if they're open - they may run out of stuff. (Remember that organic layers pellets and animal feeds are the only ones that can be guaranteed not to contain GM soya now - 'so called free range' hens are fed on exactly the same feed as battery/cage hens!). By the way - I wouldn't advise feeding red cabbage or sprouts to hens - I did that years ago when I was producing organic eggs commercially and a couple of weeks later many of my egg customers complained that I must be feeding the hens on 'chemical feed' all of a sudden - as the eggs tasted really sulphurous and horrible! That really shows you that what the hens eat affects the quality of the eggs they lay - and that anything in the feed, good or bad, is passed directly on to you! It's just the same with other animals - just as we are what we eat - we are also what they eat! That's one of the reasons I would never feed anything other than organic feed to my hens - I don't want GMO maize and soya or glyphosate-treated grain in my food!
Thank you so much to all the people who have taken the time to write and thank me for my work or thanked me on Twitter.I really enjoy sharing my original ideas and 40 years experience of growing and cooking my own organic food with you. It's most satisfying and naturally also very complimentary if others find "inspiration" in my work. But if you do happen to copy it, or repeat it in any way online - I would appreciate it very much if you would mention that it originally came from me. Thank you.