To everything there is a season and for everything a use - even seasonally-bolting vegetables!
Processing the spinach mountain late at night!
Spring Cream of Spinach soup - a delicious and easy way to use spinach
Enough thoughts of winter - now is the time to anticipate summer crops. And you know what they say about anticipation being half the pleasure of anything! The last of the overwintered lettuce, spinach and chicories are now starting to bolt - so as well as being so much to do outside - I've also been busy until late at night inside dealing with the spinach mountain by washing and freezing as fast as I can! Spinach is such a useful veg to have in the freezer as a standby for quick meals and can be thrown straight into the saucepan from frozen to make a great soup - my easy recipe for cream of spinach soup (or other greens soup) is here: http://nickykylegardening.com/index.php/recipes/418-cream-of-watercress-soup-and-patriot-s-celebration-soup-from-tunnel-to-table-two-new-recipes-for-spring
As I've mentioned often - I never blanch anything! I always just wash if necessary, dry in the salad spinner to get rid of excess water and then just freeze as fast as possible! The bolting lettuce will also be used up to make one of my favourite early summer soups - lettuce and lovage - an annual treat that uses up fast-bolting tunnel lettuce in May. Some people would just throw it onto the compost heap at this stage - but it's still perfectly edible - even if a little stronger tasting. I have three large lovage plants growing in pots - specifically for making this divine soup. I bring them into the tunnel early every March to force them on in time to make it - outside plants would be too late for the tunnel lettuce. I look forward to this soup every year. Oddly enough - I never make it at any other time of year - probably because the rest of the year there's so much else to eat! It's also great for using up the last of the stronger-flavoured, bolting overwintered lettuce. In addition - it avoids wasting precious healthy nutrients at a time of year when any fresh veg are welcome! Green lettuce is best for it I think - the red ones tend to look a bit 'mud'-coloured in soup! The last of the spinach is frozen making handy 'ready-prepared' veg for super-fast meals and throwing into smoothies. The bolting chicory is enjoyed by the hens and I always transplant a few chicories outside into the bee and butterfly border for the beautiful blue flowers that bees and other insects love and then later on seeds which birds like Goldfinches enjoy. Nothing is ever wasted here!
There's so much to do in the tunnel at the moment that the pace of work is really hectic - but there's also much to look forward to! My mouth's already watering at the prospect of that first fabulous tasting tomato - will it be Maskotka, Sungold, Chiquito or John Baer? This year they're a bit later due to the cold weather. This time last year their first flowers were already open! It will probably be Maskotka I expect as usual, particularly as it already has fruit on it the size of marbles. But John Baer won't be far behind - and they both have wonderful flavour. Is there anything to compare with the year's very first taste of anything?Year-round availability of virtually every known fruit and vegetable, imported from God knows where, actually spoils the seasonal anticipation, excitement and childlike enjoyment of that very first, mouthwatering burst of flavour! How lucky we are as gardeners, that we can have that 'first' treat so many times with every single year. After those early tomatoes, in a few weeks the beefsteaks will start to crop - and there truly is nothing like the taste of that first Caprese salad of buffalo mozzarella and a good beefsteak like Pantano Romanesco with an aromatic basil dressing, accompanied by some home-baked crispy warm ciabatta bread!
Imported out of season produce often looks as tempting and attractive as 'Snow White's' poisonous apple. It's almost always a huge disappointment sadly, a pointless waste of money, and possibly full of chemicals and carbon guzzling air miles. Imported shop bought, or even locally grown organic food can never compare with the flavour, freshness or nutritional content of your very own home-grown organic produce! Nutritional content of produce imported from the other side of the world or even from Southern Europe is something I talk about in this article: http://nickykylegardening.com/index.php/blog/492-for-the-highest-nutrients-in-fruits-and-veg-timing-is-everything
Buying something tired and already several days old from your supermarket can never rival the enormous sense of achievement and satisfaction from enjoying the well-earned fruits of your own labours - especially if they've been grown in an organic and sustainable way. There is just nothing like the satisfying crunchy sweetness of that first mangetout, or the first May strawberry. There's so many mouthfuls of summer delights to come! The first of the cherry tomatoes in June, a sun-warmed juicy peach in July or the August morning when you open the tunnel door and the scent of a ripe melon hits you, and you cradle it in your hand, the fruit slightly cracking where it joins the stem in readiness to drop off the vine. It doesn't get the chance - the pruning knife slices into a juicy ripe melon in a very satisfying way - so it rarely reaches the kitchen! Nectar for the Gods - and the ultimate in take-away breakfasts! I have to admit that the first of anything in this garden very rarely reaches the kitchen - that's the gardener's extra special reward!!
The healthy pleasures of polytunnel breakfasts
At this time of year, I've usually had at least two of my five-a-day before I even have 'proper' breakfast! Unless there's a howling gale - then breakfast or brunch in the tunnel accompanied by birdsong is a must. Even on a dull day at this time of year the tunnel is warm. Most normal people put decking outside in their gardens - but I have some inside one of my tunnels so that I can sit in there at a table whatever the weather! Even when I was growing commercially, I always had a small table and chair to sit in one of my tunnels. It's a great place to plan and think. Pre-breakfast snacks at this time of year and for the rest of the summer mostly consist of 'grazing' my way around the tunnels on whatever happens to be good at the time and within arm's reach as I do my morning watering!
I think that tunnels are really magic places that can lift the spirits and bring you joy and good health all year round. The psychological benefits of them are definitely not something to be underestimated. In fact I think that doctors should be allowed to prescribe them and health service grants should be available for people who want to purchase them! Think how much they could save the Dept. of health! My tunnels definitely prevent SAD (seasonal affective disorder) for me. I know if I spent all my time indoors in winter the lack of light would really affect me. The tunnels also provide regular gentle exercise too - that has a far more positive health giving result than just going to a gym. The freshest possible healthy food! In the tunnel I'm able to get my hands into the soil every day, finding a spot of weeding or something else to do - or just potter no matter what the weather. There's always something to look at or do. It's also a great place to have a coffee with friends - who love being surrounded by all the abundance! A friend called in recently who has been ill for over a year and hadn't seen the tunnels for a long time. She said that just looking all the crops and flowers did her good and that it was "just like coming home" - such a lovely thing to say. She left well-pleased with a box full of various food plants and produce to help speed her recovery. Growing your own health in a polytunnel is something you can do all year round! Sometimes in winter, I'll just sit in there with a cup of coffee - getting my dose of natural daylight without having to brave the lashing rain and howling gales outside - and planning the next year's crops! Having the tunnel to escape to from the unfriendly weather any time of year really is really like escaping to a magic land - "Not quite Narnia - but definitely a very different universe from that outside" - was how journalist Fionnuala Fallon so beautifully described a visit to my tunnel in November 2010!!
It's easy to have a magic land full of food and flowers all year long if you plan well. Especially in winter. In next month's diary I'll be showing you just how you can start to do that too. You need to plan ahead well for plentiful and varied winter crops. Sorry to mention the 'winter' word when we're only just hopefully looking forward to a good summer - but in tunnels, or anywhere else in the garden for that matter - planning is vital for success! Why not resolve to make this the year that you can pick brilliant veg. not just all summer - but all winter long too! I'll tell you how next month.
There's a growing excitement about tomatoes!
The lure of finding a good new tomato variety is always totally irresistible for me. I'm growing a few new varieties again this year for the Totally Terrific Tomato Festival '17 - being held at Killruddery in September! (For more info see my Polytunnel & Greenhouse diary for March and the Press release about this year's Festival). The best news for me of course is that once again - it's not me who is organising it!! So I have all the excuse I needed to try a few exciting new varieties (new to me anyway) - and to get all the fun and flavour, but without the hassle! The reason I came up with the idea of holding the very first Totally Terrific Tomato Festival back in 2012 was to demonstrate and celebrate the remarkable beauty and genetic diversity of tomatoes - and to make people aware of just how vitally important it is that we preserve all of their valuable genes. Not to mention the wonderfully healthy nutrients they contain - and also the fact that they're one of the most versatile fruits or vegetables there is! Just imagine if some deadly disease were to strike tomatoes, that there was no organic, or even (God forbid!) chemical way of dealing with - so no more tomatoes? Can you imagine a life without tomatoes and all the wonderful things we can do with them? If that was to happen - there could just be one tomato hidden away somewhere that might possibly hold the only genetic key to resisting that disease. Plant breeders could then use it's genes to produce new strains of tomatoes resistant to the disease. This is true of so many other food crops too. Preserving all genetic diversity is vitally important. Tomatoes were just a really great way to show that to people. Plant breeders are busy now using wild and Heritage varieties to produce new strains which are even more full of healthy nutrients.
The tomato pictured here - Indigo Rose - was one of the first of a new breed of naturally-bred tomatoes that are high in the healthy anthocyanin plant phytochemicals. These are nutrients that are brilliant for our health - boosting our immune and circulatory systems and protecting us from a number of major diseases. Seed of Indigo Rose was first released to gardeners in the USA in early 2012 - it's stunning looks were what gave me the idea of holding the first Tomato Festival. I first held a tomato day back in the late 80's - but sadly Indigo Rose wasn't around then. Diversity isn't just about saving old heritage varieties - although that's vitally important. It's also about preserving good, modern, naturally-bred varieties too. If you grow tomatoes at all - do come along to the Festival, bring your tomatoes to show off too and join in the fun! We had a great day last year with 138 varieties - we're hoping for even more this year!
There's a lot more to polytunnels than just tomatoes!
Me in the big polytunnel behind what I call the 'Emperor's New Clothes Plant' - Yacon. The latest fashionable 'must have' plant!
Cucumbers, melons, courgettes - the cucurbitaceae
I think the next most common tunnel or greenhouse crop to tomatoes that people grow is probably cucumbers - because you really can't beat the taste of homegrown ones - especially the older varieties which I think have more flavour. I've been growing Burpless Tasty green for around 35 years now - and I still think it can't be beaten for easiness of growing, flavour or productivity for home gardeners. Seed of BTG is incredibly cheap compared to the more 'prima donna-ish' newer hybrids - you'll get about 20 seeds for the price of just one seed of those expensive varieties! I always plant cucumbers and melons on a slight mound, watering in carefully with tepid water. Afterwards I never water very close to their stems again as they can be very prone to root rots just where the stem meets the soil. I always use tunnel temperature water to water them around their outer root area - using water from the water butt kept in the tunnel specifically for that purpose. I never use cold water from a hose! I tend to give them a slightly richer soil than I would give tomatoes, again preparing the soil in the same way a few days beforehand but also forking in a nice bucketful of good compost or well-rotted manure per plant. I then water the prospective planting site thoroughly and leave it for a couple of days for the soil to settle and warm up. If I'm growing more than one plant I plant them roughly 3ft/1m apart. I plant my early tunnel courgettes in the same way.
For those of you who are buying plants from garden centres rather than using plants you have grown from seed - make sure you inspect them very carefully! If there's any sign of browning, cracking or other damage on on the stem anywhere, particularly where it meets the compost at the top of the root ball -DON'T BUY THE PLANT! That's the first sign of root rots setting in. Very often these plants reach the nursery or garden centre from the suppliers perfectly fine - then they might get watered with a cold spray from a hose, very often by someone untrained who wouldn't know a cucumber from a cabbage - and plants can be well on the way to root rots before you even buy them! Another tell-tale sign of this is wilting - even when the compost feels damp. That's always an indicator of root problems. A mistake many beginners often make is that because they see something wilting - they think the plants need more water (I can't tell you how many plants I lost that way when I first started growing things!) but it almost always means that there is a problem with the roots and the last thing they need is even more water! That's why it's generally safer to grow them from seed yourself.
But don't worry if you haven't sown any yet - as they're fast developing plants, there's still plenty of time to sow them now for a mid - late summer (or even an autumn crop with the small gherkin types). It's best not to start them off too early anyway, as it can be difficult to give them enough warmth early on to keep them growing on really well, because another thing that all the cucurbit family hates is being pot-bound and getting checked. Pumpkins in particular really hate this as they make huge root systems - and if they get 'pot-bound' before planting out they never really do as well afterwards. Some years ago I was sent some half-sized grafted cucumbers for trialling. To be honest I wasn't that impressed with them compared to my usual varieties and they also brought in red spider mite - which didn't please me, as I then had to go to the expense of buying a biological control! A very good half-sized cucumber, ideal if the larger ones go off before you use all of them is Restina - the seed of which I got from Lidl of all places! It's a gherkin type which is useful for pickling or grows to make a very nice half-sized tasty cucumber too - and it's incredibly productive, as many of the gherkin types are.
Pumpkins and squashes are one of my most important staple crops and I start them off from seed in late April or early May in the propagator. If ripened properly, they'll store incredibly well through the winter and I always expect any so far unused to keep well until I am sowing the next year's ones. I grow the really dense fleshed ones - and these actually increase in beta-carotene, as they ripen even more while they are stored over the winter. You don't think of vegetable crops as being alive after they have been harvested - but they actually are. After they've been harvested a lot is still going on inside the cells of the plant - whatever type of plant it is! It always fascinates me how a pumpkin that starts off with a turquoise blue skin at harvesting time in late autumn can gradually change over the winter to an even more beautiful deep orange pink, like the Queensland Blue pictured here. I usually grow at least six varieties - and they are all so beautiful to look at, that being an artist I hate to cut them up for cooking! But the really good varieties also taste fantastic too - like sweet potatoes but much firmer - so I get over it! The giant ones sold for Halloween are totally useless for storing - and also cooking - they are utterly tasteless and watery compared to the ones I grow. Some of the best varieties to grow are Golden Hubbard, Blue Hubbard, Invincible, Crown Prince, Hokkaido, Giant Pink Banana, Buttercup, Marina di Chioggia and Queensland Blue. We cut up a Queensland Blue a couple of weeks ago - with great difficulty I hasten to add - a bit like breaking and entering! You need a really stout knife or hatchet to safely cut into these babies! We roasted wedges in the oven with garlic and a little butter and oil - they were absolutely delicious! They're also fantastic for the best ever pumpkin pies and soups (recipe elsewhere) and you can even use their flesh in cakes and smoothies too. The friend who was here yesterday said she made the most fabulous curry with one I gave her a couple of weeks ago - I must get that recipe!
Propagating and planting the cucumber family
I propagate all my cucurbit family (courgettes, pumpkins, melons etc..) in the same way. I sow them in 3 inch pots singly, on their sides, edge of the seed up, about 1/2 in deep, covering with vermiculite, and water in with tepid water. After this, I cover the pot with a polythene bag and germinate them in a propagator at approx 20 deg C plus/68degF. After this - I never water from the top again - always from underneath by sitting them in water for a couple of minutes. I keep them steadily growing well, even potting on if necessary, before it's warm enough to plant in the soil either in the tunnel or outside. Cucumbers in particular need night time temperatures of at least 20 deg.C to grow on really well after planting out. Unlike tomatoes, cucumbers and melons love sauna-like conditions - humidity and warmth, so the place to grow them is in the middle of your tunnel or greenhouse where they won't be in a draught and it will be a bit more humid. Or if you have more than one tunnel - then give them a tunnel to themselves. I must say I miss the four tunnels I used to have when I was growing commercially - my rotations were just so much easier. After planting, always water at the base of the mound they're planted on - not against the stem - and with tunnel temperature water, as I've said before. You shouldn't have a problem with rot if you do this. Don't over water, but never let them dry out either, or you may encourage powdery mildew to develop on the leaves, which is caused by dryness at the roots combined with high humidity. This is a particular problem in the autumn as cooler nights encourage it too. A good moisture retaining mulch of grass clippings or compost after planting (again kept well away from the stem) will help to keep that at bay by keeping the outer roots moist. Stop (pinch out) the main stem once it reaches the top of whatever support you're training it up, stop any lateral (side) shoots at the fourth leaf joint and any sub-laterals (side shoots from the side shoots!) at the second leaf joint beyond the first good fruit. If you're growing an 'all female' variety of cucumber, take out any male flowers immediately if any appear - this sometime happens if the plant is stressed in some way. Female flowers have a tiny cucumber behind the flower, male ones just have a plain stem behind the flower.
I plant my melons on a mound in exactly the same way, but I prefer to grow them trailing on the ground, using a side bed, rather than training them up a string or net which I basically don't have time for as it's so fiddly. I pinch out the main stem when five leaves have developed. The plant should then develop four or five side shoots, which will bear the fruits. Pinch these out when they reach the extent of their space, or at five leaves - these will then develop the lateral shoots which will bear more fruits. Bees will often pollinate these for you if there are lots around, but to ensure pollination, you can pick a male flower and push it gently into a female flower when they develop. The best time to do this is around midday when it's warm enough for the pollen to develop and the atmosphere isn't too humid. Careful watering of these in the same way as cucumbers is again absolutely key. When the fruits have formed - put each developing fruit on something like a piece of wood, slate or an upturned pot to stop any chance of them rotting where they're in contact with the soil and where there's less likelihood of slugs nibbling them. This also attracts warmth which helps to ripen them. (This is something I was asked about at a talk last year in respect of pumpkins - this is a good way stop them rotting outside in the garden too) You'll know when melons are starting to ripen by keeping an eye on the stem - when a crack start to develop just around where the stalk joins the fruit - and you also get that unmistakable scent - you can be sure they're ripe. I promise you that when you taste your first home grown, perfectly ripe, sweet and aromatic melon - you will be totally hooked!
There's still plenty of time to sow pumpkins, courgettes etc. for planting outside, or better still in the polytunnel if you have space. You are guaranteed a really good crop in the tunnel in our unreliable often wet summers! My courgettes crop until November in the tunnel, making them really worth the space - those outside give up much earlier. I don't bother with green courgettes much now - maybe one or two plants - I grow the yellow one 'Atena' from Suttons, a firm, deliciously sweet variety, not at all 'cabbagey tasting' like most yellow ones - and also far more productive than any of the other yellow ones I've ever tried. Everyone loves it's sweet flavour. It's very like the variety 'Eldorado' that Suttons sold in the early 1990's. I saved seed for several years, but then sadly lost it. It was quite variable though, as it had originally been an F1 hybrid. I prefer to sow all my courgettes in pots too. Although in theory all the books say you can sow courgettes etc. outside from the beginning of June, in my experience those sown inside now (or inside anytime for that matter) will still be miles ahead, far less likely to be eaten by slugs or other pests, and will crop far more quickly than any sown outside. I often think that most seed sowing instructions are written by companies mostly located in the south or west of the UK. In Ireland or the north of the UK our growing season is considerably colder and shorter than other places, so use every aid possible to speed things up! Sow them in exactly the same way as the pumpkins etc.above. I usually grow a couple of Atena in large tubs in the fruit tunnel for some early courgettes, then pull these out as soon as those outside, or planted in the ground in the other tunnel are cropping. After a while in tubs they tend to get mildew aa they hate the root restriction, but they provide a really useful early crop this way.
Planting Aubergines and Sweet Peppers
You can plant out Aubergines and sweet peppers towards the middle/end of the month too if it's warm enough - these like a really warm soil. If you have too many Solanacae (tomato family) to fit in with your rotations these will grow well in large pots on grow bags trays or sitting on plastic. I grow them in 10lt. pots, 3 pots to each grow bag tray. This means I can water into the tray rather than the pots, when plants are bigger and need more watering or feeding. I like to plant both aubergines and peppers on slight mounds - with the soil sloping away from the stem - towards the sides of the pot, as this prevents root rotting - to which they are both particularly susceptible. Don't let the plants root through the bottom of the pots into the tunnel soil, or it will mess up your rotation plan in just the same way as if they were in the ground! They require the same careful watering as most other things, never against the base of the stem - always around the outside of the pot if necessary. Be careful never to over water in case the weather then turns cold.
Aubergines are the only one of this family that I would be inclined to mist over - but only if the weather is very hot and the atmosphere very dry in your greenhouse or tunnel, as they can be very susceptible to red spider mite. By the way - if you can actually see tiny very fast moving red spiders, these are usually the predatory mite - Phytoseilius Persimilis. This means you are lucky, as this is what you would normally have to buy to control red spider. Many people confuse it with spider mite but it is very fast moving and visibly red. I often see them in the tunnel and the conservatory. The red spider mite pest you actually can't actually see without a hand lens, it shows itself by a sort of dusty, dry, silvering of the leaves, and if it is a very bad infestation, by dusty fine webs on young shoots as well. Red spider hates humidity, so misting over any affected plants a couple of times a day with a fine mister spray is a good idea. If you get a bad infestation you will have to buy the predatory Phytoseilius. It is very effective - but as it costs around 40 euros for a decent sized greenhouse - you obviously want to avoid it if you can!
Climbing French Beans, early broad beans and peas
Climbing French beansare a fantastically productive tunnel crop. You can always be sure of a good crop inside - even in a miserable summer. I grow the variety 'Cobra' (very cheap seed in B&Q) it's a round-podded stringless bean - actually an improved form of 'Blue Lake' and is fantastically reliable - both indoors and outside in the garden. I always grow a lot as it also freezes exceptionally well and it's nice to have a bit of a change from cabbages, leeks and chard in the winter! I sow two or three seeds (pre-sprouted on damp kitchen paper) into a recycled 500ml plastic yogurt pot or milk cartons, gently pulling out the weakest if three germinate, leaving two, planting them out when they have a good root-ball but just before they get too friendly and start winding round each other! Again, always watering from underneath by sitting the whole tray of seedlings in water for a few minutes rather than pouring water into their tops. They are also extremely susceptible to root rots at soil level. Milk cartons unzip very conveniently along the join in the carton and then I plant the whole pot out about a foot/30cm apart on a very slight mound made by making a depression between each set of plants. After that I always water between plants - again never against the base of the stem. Follow these instructions and I can promise you that you will not only fill your freezer but be giving away beans! The flat podded French beans don't freeze as well as the round ones, but have a very good flavour fresh and are very productive. I don't bother with dwarf beans in the tunnel as they take up exactly the same ground space but don't crop anything like as well. What I term 'high-rise' crops are much better value for the space they take up in a tunnel, cropping skywards as they do - just as long as you stop them at the top of their canes or supports, leaving enough room for air to circulate well.
The mangetouts and early Shiraz purple mangetout peas will be cropping in the next couple of weeks - The mangetout 'Delikett' won't be far behind those. Delikett is a deliciously sweet sugar (round podded) variety which never gets stringy, and goes on cropping for ages. When it gets really huge it can also be podded and the peas used separately. It crops really well in the tunnel from an early February sowing, as does Shiraz. I sow these quite thickly in large recycled plastic fruit punnets, I never bother spacing them out too well. about 8-10 punnets gives me a 10 foot row from a whole packet of seed. That works well, as I usually then give the 'Crimson Flowered' broad bean the other half of the row.
Originally from the HDRA seed library - now known as the Garden Organic Heritage Seed Library - I've been re-selecting and saving seed of this fabulous flavoured one for well over 30 years now. Re-selecting for traits like taller, heavier cropping plants. At one time it was extremely rare and one couldn't buy it - but several seed companies are selling it now - although I don't think they are as good as my selection which is quite improved from the one I originally got. It's not the biggest cropper, only four or five seeds to a pod, but it does produce a lot of pods on the now taller plants and has an incredible flavour - the best of any broad bean. The small undeveloped pods are nice too if picked early and cooked whole - they have the same flavour as the broad bean seeds. It's also extremely decorative and worth growing just for the flowers and perfume alone, which really hits you when you walk into the tunnel in the evenings. The best thing for me though - is that when it's flowering it's full of deliriously happy bees all day long! They love it just as much as I do!
Sweetcorn and late celery
If you've got a large tunnel and have room for a small block or row of sweetcorn plants, they're much more reliable in the tunnel than outdoors in our wet summers, as a dry atmosphere at pollination time is vital. In Ireland we often get a wet spell just when the outside ones are producing their pollen - resulting either in very disappointing cobs or none at all! Although they do take up a lot of space, I often sow late self blanching celery now or in mid June - to plant between the sweetcorn plants for a late autumn/Christmas crop. Celery appreciates the shade of the sweetcorn as long as you don't let the soil dry out and will crop well all winter if you just snap off one or two stalks at a time rather than cutting the whole head. Celery is one of the things I can't do without in the kitchen, so I like to have my own available for as long as I can. Sweet corn can also be sown now in a deep pot, again removing the weakest to leave two in the pot, then planting them out into the tunnel bed when they're about 6-8in/15cm high, about 18in - 2ft./45-60cm each way, that leaves room for the celery. Sweetcorn hates root disturbance so be careful not to break up the root ball when planting. They're a great crop to follow on after my extra early potatoes, the bed should have been well composted or manured for the potatoes, so both the sweet corn and the celery will be very happy with just a light dressing of a general organic fertiliser such as 'Osmo Universal' certified organic fertiliser granules. The celery is slower growing, and after the sweet corn has cropped, I just chop the stems off at the base with secateurs and let the celery grow on into the autumn. It should keep well until at least Christmas, and you can always leave some of the bare sweet corn stems cut at about 2ft/40cm if you like - to act as support for the fleece which you may need to cover the celery with in late autumn! By the way - when the sweetcorn is pollinating - make sure to go along the row and shake some of them - around midday if possible, to spread the pollen, as they're normally wind pollinated. This way you're guaranteed great crops.
You could alternatively grow pumpkins with your sweetcorn as long as they can get plenty of light - thus ensuring two crops that need dry weather - in case we get another awful summer! In my experience though, the famous '3 sisters' Native American way of combining them both with climbing beans as well. doesn't work in Ireland! Amusing and a great talking point for those who want one - but not productive, either inside or outside. We don't have the same hot, dry summers and intense continental light that the USA has . Low cloud and warm grey mist can often be the best part of our summers here. At the end of the day - productivity is the whole point for me - as we aim to be as self-sufficient as possible and don't have space or energy to waste on unproductive crops just to talk about them!
Sweet Potatoes, Oca and Yacon
Another great crop which makes a good break in the tunnel rotation is sweet potatoes. These aren't related to anything else so make a really good 'break' in the tunnel rotation and can be very productive if you know how to grow them. Some of the 'so-called experts' obviously don't however - as they tell you to plant them in very fertile soil! If you do that - all you'll get is a great crop of enormous leaves!! Ignore their advice and plant them in a deep, well-drained soil used by a previous crop - and only add a light dusting of seaweed meal before planting - then mulch with grass clippings or comfrey to keep any weeds down and water just to keep the soil moist after that. Never over-water or they can start to rot. I plant mine about 2ft/60cm apart and leave them to ramble along the ground. They are quite happy there - forming extra roots along the stems which you can use for 'slips' - or cuttings later on. I've seen people train them up trellises - but those seem far too lusciously leafy to me to be very productive tuber-wise! I've tried them in large pots before but they weren't very happy - but last year I tried them in my new idea - 'skip bag' raised beds. They were incredibly happy - I think they loved the great depth of soil. I planted them following on from some 'extra-early' ordinary potatoes that I'd grown in the skip bag, again with only a little seaweed meal until starting to feed in August in the same way as those planted in the ground. They produced a huge crop and it's definitely something I shall do again.
Now for my top sweet potato tip! In early August I start to feed the plants with a high potash tomato feed like Osmo liquid Tomato feed whenever I need to water them. This is because it's only then that they start to develop their tubers, triggered by the shortening days, as they are 'day length sensitive' sub-tropical plants. They will they go on developing the tubers until the soil begins to cool or there is frost, so usually early November here. Outside in most areas of the UK and Ireland they would be pretty much a waste of time as it's usually far too cold and wet in the autumn and they stop growing too soon to give a really worthwhile crop. A few years ago, I successfully overwintered late autumn 'slips' in well drained, barely watered pots in the house. Last year I thought I would try to overwinter some in very well drained soil in the cold tunnel but lost the lot. They seem to be very prone to rotting under about 50degF/10degC. and won't even keep after harvesting unless I keep them in the house somewhere over that temperature. Some of the garden centres and multiples may have plants of 'Beauregarde' fairly soon - which is a good variety to grow. It has delicious deep orange flesh and is the most reliable for home gardeners. Johnstown Garden Centre had one called Bonita for the last two years, a white-fleshed variety which did very well and produced even bigger tubers than Beauregarde, and also one called Murusaki which was similar. Orleans is an improved form of Beauregarde - giving bigger tubers but less of them. This year I'm trying a purple one which I don't know the name of sadly - I bought tubers last winter from organic grower friend Denis Healy's farmers market stall and I've managed to root cuttings of it. I thought they were worth trying as I love the purple ones - they were from Spain, rather than further afield, so I think they may grow well in a polytunnel here. It will be an interesting experiment!
Oca is another tender-ish crop which forms it's delicious lemony flavoured tubers in the late autumn - but beware - once you have grown it in the tunnel you will always have it as even the tiniest tubers will grow again the following year! That said - it's not really a thug, is easy to grow and like sweet potatoes is a good break crop. The small tubers are like floury lemon flavoured new potatoes - nice steamed and served with fish. You can also eat the delicious sharp flavoured leaves and pretty, small star-shaped yellow flowers in salads in moderation. Moderation is the key though - you don't want too much of it!
Something that again some 'experts' fail to tell you - or may not even know, is that it's actually a member of the sorrel family and so is extremely high in oxalic acid - too much of which could actually give you kidney stones, if you are susceptible! Some garden writers who should know better, are now even suggesting it as the new alternative to potatoes - as a staple root crop that won't get blight. Even those who write about 'healthy eating' - quite astonishing!! I've done a lot of research over the years into the nutritional qualities of crops, as it's something I've always been interested in - especially growing all of my family's food and also being fascinated by plants. Apart from the fact that you'd really never get big enough crops here outside - I would suggest that they are a rather dangerous 'staple' crop to eat every day instead of potatoes! Nice occasionally, as a side dish - but not worth risking on an every day basis!
Now for another of what I love to call the 'Emperor's New Clothes' plant -Yacon - that I'm pictured with above!! It is undoubtedly an extremely handsome plant - but as the old saying goes - looks aren't everything!It's the very latest 'must have' plant - even what I would call a garden 'fashion statement'! Everyone professes to love it and to get great crops from it - but frankly I don't believe them and I have no problem saying so! Particularly if they live in the British Isles! I suppose it depends what you call great crops though? A few years ago I tried Yacon plants in the tunnel. I've tried them outside before - but never got much of a crop as they also don't develop their tubers until the days shorten so they need a long warm autumn - not something we usually get here! At €28 per potted plant as seen in garden centres over the last few years - it would need to be an awful lot more than just good looking for me! Plants in my polytunnels have to really earn their space! It did produce a good bunch of tubers per plant and even flowered with small sunflower like blooms - but quite frankly it's a waste of time unless you have acres of spare tunnel space - and who has, except a botanic garden? I certainly don't - for me it's a waste of valuable tunnel space (a minimum 2/3 sq.metres per plant) and outside won't produce a worthwhile crop in our cold damp autumns anyway! In addition to that - all the' experts' (there I go again) say it tastes of 'Granny Smith' crossed with mild pear (copying each other - having obviously read each others articles!) Now come on please! I reckon I have very good unspoiled taste buds. Living as I do on a totally organic, low salt diet and being a non-smoker, I can usually taste the most delicate flavours - but apple and pear? I don't think so!! At best - weak water chestnut - but yes, a lovely crunchy texture, I'll give you that! It's also being promoted as a less 'windy' alternative pre-biotic vegetable to Jerusalem artichokes. Now there's a veg with attitude - it certainly makes it's presence felt - or otherwise! It's cheap to buy, overwinters outside because it's as hardy as old boots and it's almost impossible to lose. What's not to like - apart from the fact that it's just not as fashionable!? And it also has a most fantastic nutty flavour - valuable and versatile in countless winter recipes. Give me Jerusalem Artichokes any time over Yacon! This year Yacon will be relegated to my Jungle garden - with all the other interesting foliage plants. It will look absolutely splendid there, and I will just appreciate it's admittedly exotic looks!!
Mashua or Anu - this is another crop that's suddenly become fashionable - although it's very much an acquired taste for most to say the least! If you like Wasabi - then you'll love it! It's actually a type of climbing nasturtium - Tropaeolum tuberosum - so the leaves and flowers can be eaten in salads and are just as tasty as it's cousin the more ordinary annual nasturtium that we all know and love. The roots are the real crop though - and are far higher in some cancer-fighting phytochemicals than any other members of the wider cabbage family to which they belong.
The very strong, if not to say explosively hot, radish-tasting tubers are beautiful but not for the faint hearted! Not bad grated very sparingly raw in salads - but I believe in South America they are greatly prized when dried, stored and later cooked. I haven't tried doing that with them yet!
Tropaeolum tuberosum aka Anu or Mashua in flower
Other polytunnel crops
Ever-bearing or perpetual strawberries are another great tunnel crop. The biggest problem with them is the blackbirds, if I put up netting fine enough to keep them out - it keeps out the bees as well, which pollinate them! I must try to find a netting which is about a 1/4 the size of pea and bean netting, as that only deters pigeons. The blackbirds have perfected a 'hobby-like' last minute wing-folding dash as they aim at the squares of netting - I've watched them do it countless times - and I have to admire their ingenuity, but not their greed! If they get into the tunnel they will try nearly every single one - pecking at them all until they find the very ripest. I think they must be the avian equivalent of 'Goldilocks'! Encouraging wildlife is all very well - but it has it's limits!! Albion, Buddy and Everest are great flavoured, heavy cropping varieties that all do well for me - cropping from May until November - and you can't ask more than that.
All of the grapes are producing plenty of flower buds now, and on both seedless and seeded grapes the main work is pinching out shoots two leaves beyond potential bunches, leaving only one bunch per shoot if you want decent bunches or if the vine is young, or two bunches if they are seedless and you don't necessarily want huge grapes. Be careful not to pinch out the last two shoots needed for extension growth of the main rod or stem. Keep roots moist, but don't over water.
In a normal year I'd be doing the second thinning of peach fruitlets this week, when they're already the size of large walnuts. At the moment they're only the size of large peas - at least two weeks behind due to the cold weather - so I'll be doing their first thinning now - to 2 ins apart. At the end of the month or when they're walnut sized - I'll thin again to 4ins apart. It's a fiddly job I really hate - taking off all that potential fruit! But if you don't thin - either the whole lot could drop off because the tree has too much to cope with, or you'll just get very small stony fruits. I want big luscious ones - so I thin them! Keeping them well watered now is important too.
The figs in pots are also developing fast and are being fed a high potash tomato feed, as they kept their embryo fruitlets well over the winter. The 'brega' crop (the term for the overwintered early crop) looks like being really good this year on all of the figs. Brogiotto Nero is looking the best - it's a black fig with deep violet coloured flesh and has the very best flavour I think - but they're all delicious if you're into figs as I am! I've got about 20 varieties now. Figs are very easy to propagate from cuttings or suckers as they aren't grafted and so are much easier to grow than many people think - as long as you're very strict with them! They must be kept under 'house arrest' and restricted in large pots. In the ground - particularly outside - they will just produce masses of leaves and no fruit unless you have them on a very sunny wall with their roots severely restricted in some way. Nice foliage plants in a jungle - but not very productive! 'Violetta', 'Brown Turkey', 'Brunswick', Califfo Blue and Rouge de Bordeaux are some that all have a fast-developing 'breba' crop of baby figs currently. They will need keeping moist and feeding at every other watering, particularly as I want another later crop in the autumn.
(Please note.I really enjoy sharing my original ideas and 40 years experience of growing and cooking my own organic food with you. It's most satisfying and naturally also very complimentary if others find "inspiration" in my work......But if you do happen to copy any of my material, or repeat it in any way online - I would appreciate it very much if you would please mention that it originally came from me. It's the result of many years of hard work and hard-won experience. Thank you.)