November contents: Storing Apples......Pruning grapes is an urgent job.....How to Prune unruly Grapes.....How to take grapevine cuttings - the easy no-fuss way.....On 'Buying Irish' or local......Reminder - time to plant bare root trees - what to do if conditions aren't suitable?....More thoughts on rootstocks......Choosing Varieties
It's a delight to pick out a daily treasure from among the 14 delicious varieties currently in my recycled old freezer 'apple store'!
It's a standing joke in this house that if you stand still for long enough then 'She' (meaning me!) will probably recycle you! I have to admit I am a big fan of recycling as much as possible and I often tend to hang onto things 'just in case' which can cause a few space problems occasionally! One of the things I've often found though is that if I throw out something which I've hung on to for years - the very next week I'll find the perfect use for it and then will no longer have it!! Possibly a form of insecurity? But it's often amazing how many things can be re-purposed with just a little imagination and ingenuity. It's not only frugal but also very satisfying being able to re-purpose something rather than just throwing it away thoughtlessly as so many people do!
One of the things I never throw out is old fridges and freezers that aren't working and can't be mended - which is always the preferred option. Their uses are myriad! While they may not be the most attractive items in the world and are definitely not as beautiful as those expensive 'artisan'-crafted, wooden slatted, apple stores - they make fantastic rodent-proof, well-insulated, variable humidity apple stores among many other things. This year I've put many of the eating apples into my late mother's old upright freezer, which finally broke down only about 3 years ago after being fixed several times over the last 25 years. It was the perfect excuse to buy a much-needed new, far more environmentally-friendly and energy-efficient one. Re-located into a cold outhouse this old one is perfect for storing smaller numbers of eating apples that ripen at various different times - from their picking time in October up until April. I also houses some of the less-damaged windfalls in a separate drawer - some of which need checking over daily. With only a few of several varieties, I've arranged different varieties in each of the drawers with the earliest ripening at the top, so that the rising ethylene gas given off by the ripening fruits doesn't set off the others off into ripening too. In the past I've learnt that this is something that can happen if you have many different varieties with different ripening times stored together. The drawers are easy to pull out to inspect them and check for any fast-ripening or damaged ones which could rot quickly if left in there and also damage others. This can happen no matter how carefully one picks them - even wind can bruise ripening apples while still on the tree and this may not be evident at the time when they're just picked.
G.K.Chesterton once said "To learn how to value something - imagine losing it". This is so true and applies to so many things -but for me - especially to orchard fruit like apples, as I've often mentioned. For several years since our neighboring farmer started growing cereals, my poor trees had been affected by the spray-drift from his hormone weedkillers every spring and so all their flower buds dropped off. Result - no apples! Having been brought up with an abundance of old heritage varieties, I missed them desperately - especially since the apples available in supermarkets are just tasteless, sugar-filled orb with tough, often bitter skins. This year however was different. With oilseed rape growing on the other side of the hedge to my orchard, the weather was a bit odd and the spraying regime was not the same. As a result, Nature worked her magic, the irreplaceable bees have done their job well and I now have enough tasty apples stored - both eaters and cookers - to see me through until the end of March.
Every day one of these treasures is picked out carefully, polished and admired like the jewel it is for an hour or so - then to be consumed at lunchtime with much appreciation! There are so few things in life that one can lose and then regain. I am so grateful for every single one of these delicious apples, with all of their deeply aromatic flavours, for along with them come so many precious memories that encompass my whole life. I went to a very interesting lecture on scent years ago that was given by an expert from the Edinburgh Botanic Gardens to the Irish Garden Plant Society - he explained that scent goes directly to the limbic system, is in fact the first sense that we gain at birth and normally the last thing that we lose. That explains why scent can be so evocative for us. G.K.Chesterton was indeed a wise man, who understood that some things are worth more than money. In fact - money can't buy these apples. If you want to eat them - then you will probably have to grow them yourself - because you definitely won't find them in any shops!
Pruning grapes is an urgent job - after the winter solstice things start to wake up again!
Pruning grapevines is really the most urgent job polytunnel fruit to do now - as soon as the leaves have died back and are falling - the earlier the better! Once we're in December it's a job that's so easy to forget with all the hectic preparations to be done for the festive season and then the New Year! Don't leave it until late December or early January because if we have a very mild winter, as many have been recently, the sap can start rising early - particularly with the warmer environment and soil in a polytunnel. If you prune when the sap has started rising you can seriously weaken, or may even kill a vine. While you're pruning you could even turn some of the lengths of wood that you've pruned into new plants by using them as cuttings as described below. Then you might have some young vines next year to increase your stock or give away as Christmas presents to other gardeners! You can also twist the pliable pruned lengths into a base for making a lovely Christmas wreath for your own front door - or as a thoughtful home-made present for someone else!
Pruning vine side shoots 2-3 buds from main stem or rod as it's known.
Vine cuttings from this year's pruning, lower one prepared ready for propagation.
Last year's rooted cuttings, ready to tip out, gently separate and pot up.
How to Prune unruly Grapes
People so often panic about pruning vines and then do nothing - just letting them ramble and go wild everywhere! The then become a tangled, unproductive mess with long leafy shoots growing everywhere very fast! I know it looks really difficult to know where to start when you're surrounded by a tangled mess of shoots and branches growing wildly all over the place! Believe me - I've been there!! But even if your vine is a real mess like many I've seen - it really is easy to rescue it and untangle the mess! Whatever you do to it at this time of year - you can't possibly kill it. But if you delay and leave it too late until the sap's rising - then you just might!
I now grow almost all of my vines in 'T' shapes - with branches or 'rods' as they are known branching out either side at the top of the 'T' - and trained along the sides of my polytunnel at about one metre high. Training like this means that they have a good length of stem for producing the side shoots or 'spurs' which will produce the grapes. As vines come into leaf late - in April - they don't shade any other crops this way. They're also within easy reach to pinch back the soft green side growths which will grow out from those fruiting spurs regularly over the summer - you will need to do that continually over the summer prevent another mess. Unlike woody growth, soft green growth can be pinched back at any time of year and the vines won't bleed. This is the way to keep them properly under control.
Growing them along the sides also makes use of every bit of tunnel space very productively. I don't recommend training them overhead as some people so - because doing that will shade any crops underneath and also be extremely hard to reach and difficult to deal with when they need lots of 'pinching out' of fast growing excess leafy shoots etc during the growing season in order to produce decent grapes. Grown my way they're always within easy reach and jobs don't become a major production - involving stepladders and a lot of time. (Been there - done that - fallen off the ladder!) The way I grow them is far more simple and it's far easier to keep under control. Believe me I get more grapes than I know what to do with every year - and you'll be lucky to get any if you let them become a mess - because that restricts the air circulation too - which means any bunches that do develop get disease and go mouldy!
If you're starting with a new vine then just prune at the top at about one metre or slightly lower, and next year allow two branches to grow out either side. These will be the beginning of your permanent main 'T' shaped framework. However - if you're starting on a mess - stand back and look at it for a while to 'get your eye in' and then select one or two of the strongest woody branches to be the main stems from now on, one to train either side, and then just prune any other growth back to two buds from those two main stems. The buds on these side growths from the main stem - or 'spurs', as they are called, will produce your bunches of grapes next year, and every year after that. You can alternatively just grow them as a bush if they're in a pot and allow 5 or 6 side shoots to grow out from the main trunk to form permanent branches that will produce one or two bunches of grapes each. It's up to you - vines are very flexible and will do whatever you want. The one thing you must remember is to keep on top of the pruning all summer too. It's not rocket science - dead easy! Keep it simple is my motto - and it works for me. Believe me - you won't regret doing it - just be brave!!
While I'm doing this year's pruning - I'm going to take some cuttings of the Flame Seedless grape in the east tunnel. After looking a bit 'iffy' for a couple of years - only producing one or two bunches - it's finally decided it likes it here, has at last settled down and cropped really well again this year. It's a very late variety, ripening throughout October depending how warm the autumn is, so it really stretches the grape season well. It even seems to be continuing to ripen after picking the last bunches 2 weeks ago. We're still eating the last bunches fresh as they keep really well in a cool larder or airy cool place. The other grape that has a long season is Lakemont Seedless, we're still eating the last of those fresh too.
The last fresh grapes of the year. Lakemont Seedless and Flame Seedless
How to take grapevine cuttings - the easy no-fuss way
You can use some of the pruned material as cuttings to make more vines using newly ripened wood from this year's growth.Just choose pencil thick (or more) hardened (brown and woody) shoots that you've just pruned from this year's growth, with three good buds on. You'll need a pot or bucket of old, free draining, firm gritty compost - no need to break it up or fork it over. I usually use one of the containers that grew aubergines, tomatoes, or something similar, as the nutrients will have been used up. You don't want to put cuttings into nutrient-rich compost as this can deter them from rooting. Cut off whatever now dead plant was in there before obviously - tomato, aubergine or whatever! Then just push the cuttings/twigs down firmly into the compost around the sides of the pot or container, about an inch or so from the sides, with the lowest bud buried, the middle bud just at or just below the soil surface, and the top bud about 3-4ins or 10cm above the compost - ensuring they're the right way up - naturally! Water them in well, put them somewhere fairly shaded in the tunnel like under the staging and forget them for a couple of months. Alternatively - you could put the cuttings into individual long 'vine' or rose pots to start with - but that's a lot of bother when not all of them will 'strike' and form roots. Probably 80-90% of them should strike. In spring, when they start to show signs of growth, water them carefully every so often - but never over water as they may rot before they have formed proper roots. Protect them from any early frosts with fleece. Then there's nothing else to do until next winter - apart from occasional watering so they don't completely dry out. Then you can tip them out and separate them gently, potting them up individually into a nice, free draining compost.
Dead easy! That's next year's Christmas presents for nothing - from something you would otherwise have just thrown away! Now that's what I really call saving money!! Another frugal idea I came up with a few years ago was to use the long bendy prunings to make decorative wreaths. The long pliable shoots wind easily around each other and can be secured with a little raffia or string - then you can decorate them with whatever you feel like. Pine cones, berries, seashells or even cookies or other little gifts. These make another lovely Christmas present that can be re-used year after year! It beats expensive shop-bought ones!
On 'Buying Irish' or local
Talking of which - I'm often criticised for not exclusively promoting Irish nurseries and garden centres. That criticism is unfair however, as I do promote them whenever they offer reasonable value and a good choice, as anyone who has been reading this blog for long will know. One of the reasons I started this blog, some years ago, was to share the the money saving tips I've discovered over the years with other gardeners. After more than 35 years of being a keen organic gardener growing your own food, and seeking out the best value in what you don't grow - you learn quite a few good tips! While I'm all for supporting Irish business as it benefits all of us - I don't support anyone who tries to take advantage of the the 'grow you own' boom to rip people off, either by charging double the UK price, or supplying inferior products just because they can if they have little or no competition here! I've always looked for the best value. That's important when you're trying to feed a family a healthy organic diet on a limited budget, whether you're trying to grow it or buy it. Organic choices can be more expensive - even when they don't need to be.
Some cynical retailers, particularly some of the supermarkets, still seem to think that eating healthily and buying organic food is a 'luxury lifestyle choice' by well-off nature lovers, who will tolerate constantly rising prices. The reality is actually very different when you have a small child who very nearly died from multiple allergies - like I had years ago. We've always avoided all household chemicals, and always had to buy any organic food which we couldn't grow ourselves for that very reason. (Certainly not a luxury lifestyle believe me - holidays were a rarity too!).
Similarly - some nurseries and garden centres seem to have that same attitude towards people who want to grow their own food. I was looking around the fruit catalogues recently to see what new varieties there were - and came across an Irish garden centre charging double UK prices for their fruit trees etc! Now maths has never been my strong point - but even I can count the difference between fruit trees that cost 45/49 euros here plus delivery - and exactly the same fruit trees that cost 25 pounds sterling (that includes a generous currency conversion) plus delivery from one of my favourite nurseries - Ken Muir's in the UK or Deacons Nursery on the Isle of Wight. I've been buying plants and trees from both of them for over 30 years - and I can honestly say they have the greatest range of top quality fruit available at the most competitive prices, as I've often mentioned before. Since I recently discovered the Parcel Motel - even the delivery charges are much cheaper for many items too. You just give the Parcel Motel Belfast address so that you only pay UK postage - they then transfer your items here by courier at a small charge and you pick them up from one of their dedicated lockers at various convenient points around the Republic, which you open by using a pin number they send to your mobile phone. Brilliantly simple - and saves a lot of money! Even I can manage to do it!!
Here's another cost cutting tip if you're ordering from the UK and have a convenient friend in the North of Ireland - again cheaper UK postage applies naturally. If you live near enough to go and pick your stuff up from there - it still works out cheaper. Planting the trees will more than offset the carbon if that bothers you! (you could car-share the shopping trip with a pal to buy organic goodies there that you won't get here too! Again - I know all the stuff about buying Irish - but when Irish shops sell what I want to buy - then I will! If it's not available here - then I will buy it somewhere else. I keep on asking for things here but some shops just can't be bothered! Some supermarkets and shops get away with charging exorbitant prices for a very restricted range of produce just because they can!! 'Every little bit helps' - but mostly their profits!!) When it comes to plants - in these days of EU wide plant certification, there are no worries about plant health importation restrictions or other problems. In just one or two cases you may possibly contravene plant breeders rights, by bringing certain potato varieties here which nurseries won't send by mail order to Eire - but My blog is about saving you money and also recommending the best varieties to grow from my experience.
Some organic wholefoods are also cheaper in the UK, although I find most of what I need now in The Organic Supermarket - which has 3 brilliant stores in Dublin now - one only about 10 miles from us. In addition to all the dry goods you could need, they also have a very good range of organic fruits and vegetables. Being an all organic shop - these don't have to be individually wrapped in plastic - something that people often complain about! When organic produce is sold in shops that also sell non-organic produce - then these have to be packaged separately so that there's no likelihood of them being mixed up with any non-organic produce. Either accidentally or deliberately! As we've eaten only organic food here for over 40 years - for many years I had to venture over 50 miles to Northern Ireland 2-3 times a year to buy any dry goods that I couldn't get here. So I'm naturally delighted that we now have a really good store so near to us. They also sell online and deliver anywhere in Ireland. I rarely praise shops - but this one is worth mentioning. And no - I don't get any freebies!!
The Organic Supermarket is also good value for packaged and fresh foods and because they only sell organic foods - these don't have to be packed in plastic as they are in supermarkets - where they have to be kept separate and distinct from non-organic. I know for a fact (because I used to supply them with organic eggs) that there are certain other Irish health stores which have been putting a minimum 100% mark up on all dried foods for many years! So there's no contest! Feeding my family as healthily as possible - on a small budget, by necessity, has always been my priority!
Reminder - time to plant bare root trees - what to do if conditions aren't suitable?
The season for bare root tree planting is really on us in earnest now - the nurseries are starting to send out their first orders. If you're thinking about ordering bare root trees or fruit bushes - get on with it fast or you'll be at the back of the queue and get the tail end of the nursery stock early next year! If you've already ordered some - when you trees or bushes arrive get them into the ground as soon as possible. Anything you can plant now while the soil is warmer will get a far better start than anything planted in the New Year after a lot more wet weather as long as the soil is in good condition when planting. If you can't plant for a few days because of frosty weather - then unwrap the plants, put them into a sack or bin bag somewhere frost free like a garage or shed, and fill loosely with compost or put damp newspaper around the roots so that they don't dry out. They'll be fine for up to a couple of weeks like this - particularly if they're in compost - but don't leave them any longer or they may suffer. If you think you may have to leave them for much longer than that then it's a good idea to bring in some soil now to dry out - either into your tunnel or greenhouse or even a garage. You'll need about enough to mix half and half with a good peat-free organic compost. If you pot them up into large pots using this mix they will already be acclimatised to your soil. If you're not sure how much just measure it out into your pots according to the number of trees you will have to plant.
It can be surprising to see that even dormant, apparently dead-looking plants will still be doing their job of trying to grow at the roots - with tender new white roots growing out from the existing brown ones trying to find some soil. They are never doing nothing - unless they're actually dead! The new young roots are very brittle and can easily be knocked off when handling or planting. This is why it's so important to get them either into the ground or into large pots of the soil mix as soon as possible after arrival. If the roots are miles too big for the pots then find bigger pots - never wind them around. If one or two of the roots are only just too big then prune those back slightly so that they just fit in. If a root is cleanly pruned then it will start to make several new roots out from the tip in just the same way that branches do. I've found that on the M26 root stock trees are very happy in large pots, until you have time to plant them out when weather conditions are more suitable or in spring. If you add micorrhizae onto the roots as well when potting them up, then they will start to make nice root systems. Also don't forget that the 'graft union a minimum of 4 inches or 10 cm above the soil' still applies - whether you're planting into the ground or into a pot. It's astonishing how many tree sold in garden centres are potted up too deeply by people who should know better!
I described my normal method of planting last month's Oct. diary - but something I forgot to add was that if you're on a seriously heavy clay soil where water can tend to lie on the surface a bit in winter - it's also helpful to add a few shovelfuls of grit or pea gravel to the planting area too - working these into the compost/soil mix which is going back into the hole and then working it in around the roots. The pea gravel is almost more important on a heavy clay soil than adding compost to the mix. That's one of the things I learnt from well-known plantswoman Beth Chatto many years ago. Adding too much compost or manure - even if it's really well rotted - can often be a really bad thing. It can lead to poor drainage and soft, sappy growth caused by an excess of nitrogen, which can then make plants much more susceptible to disease.
All plants are grateful for good drainage - roots need air or they can rot - particularly in our often wetter climate here in Ireland. Unless they're bog plants, they don't like their feet constantly wet, and the vital microbes that live in the soil around their roots can't do their job of making nutrients available to the plants in those conditions. Pea gravel or grit is cheaper in bulk bags and it's permanent - so if you're making a long term investment in good fruit trees then it's well worth buying some. Unlike compost or humus - grit doesn't gradually disappear - it's there forever. It doesn't matter where you use it in the garden - everything seems to love growing in it - and it opens up the structure of the soil permanently. It's well worth going to the trouble of digging it in when you're preparing the soil, particularly if you're on a heavy clay soil like we have here. You will only have to do it once - and you won't get the chance to do it again. It will also raise the level of the soil slightly which is another plus. Our winters seem set to become wetter in future with climate change - so take that into account whenever you're planting anything permanent.
I always find this time of year so exciting. As a keen 'pomologist (fruit lover) I just have to plant one or two new varieties each year - particularly as I've started to plant a new orchard as a shelter belt around the hen runs (good excuse!) - actually hens love a bit of shade and shelter whatever the weather.
Roots are the foundations of the plant - and just like building a house - if the foundations are not good then sooner or later problems will arise. If trees are planted badly, on the wrong sort of soil, in poor conditions - or if they're on the wrong root stock for your soil and climate - that can lead to poor root development, with diseases becoming more of a problem or perhaps the whole tree collapsing when carrying a heavy crop of fruit! That happened to me many years ago - when in my innocence I planted a couple of trees which I now realise were obviously on M9 root stocks - having been assured by the nurseries I got them from here that they were M26 - ha! After a few years when the tops were heavy - a couple fell over in a gale as the roots weren't vigorous enough on that particular rootstock. After 30 years, those trees are still small, miserable, disease-prone and never produce more than half a dozen apples. You learn by your mistakes - but those were expensive ones! Always ask what root stocks the trees are on - before you tell them which you want! M26 or the slightly more vigorous MM106 are by far the best here, and recent trials at RHS Rosemoor Garden in the west country of the UK have proved that M26 will grow quite happily and be productive for many years in pots or containers. I'm still reserving judgement on the 'Coronet' grafted apples in the ornamental potager until I've grown them for a couple more years! So far, I'm not sure they're very healthy in our damp Irish weather!
The variety 'Red Windsor' pictured here (on the 'Coronet' rootstock) was bred from Cox and is said to be more disease resistant. I suppose it's a bit soon to judge as I only planted it 4 years ago. It does have a very good flavour - but also has some scab so the fruit wouldn't keep as well as it should. It's early days - so we shall see! The very best Cox alternative is 'Holstein' or 'Queen Cox'. It has the same wonderful flavour and keeping qualities as Cox's Orange Pippin - but unlike C.O.P. it's very disease-resistant and is a far larger apple. As it's what is known as a 'triploid' apple. That means it has no good pollen of it's own so it needs two other pollinator varieties. 'James Grieve'' - a nice, slightly earlier eating apple and 'Grenadier' a good early season cooker - are good pollination partners for it. In fact they are good pollinators for many other apples. If you're choosing pollinators - always check that they are in the same pollination group (flowering time). Any good nursery catalogue will always tell you this. Some nurseries are also selling what they call 'Self fertile Queen Cox' now. I haven't tried it personally but even if it is - apple trees always crop better when another nearby tree is flowering at the same time as pollination is far more reliable.
Buying bare root is always much cheaper - and all types of fruit will establish far better planted this way. Some varieties of fruit are available in pots in garden centres, but there's very little choice of varieties, and they're often potted incorrectly - with the root stock too close to the top of the compost. The graft 'union' which looks like a large bulge on the stem must be 4in/10cm above the top of the compost - otherwise the variety may be able root out into the soil - by-passing the dwarfing rootstock - which means you lose the benefit of that. They're also often in peat composts which means they don't establish as well because the roots are used to pure peat or are going round and round in circles as they are restricted in the pot, and many available here are not good varieties for our climate either. The other thing is that if you're a bit late ordering and the plants aren't sent out until Feb/Mar.- then no matter how well they're packed, if they're delayed at all the plants may begin to shoot, and if the package is handled roughly these shoots can break off as I've already mentioned. Some carriers are better than others, but it's far wiser to order in plenty of time so they travel while they're still completely dormant, rather than when preparing to grow any minute!
Most mail order fruit nurseries now sell fruit trees as first year feathered maidens or 'whips'. They're much cheaper (often a third of the price) and establish much better as the roots are younger and primed to react more quickly because they have far more growth hormone in their root tips. Feathered maidens are just a single stem with possibly a few small side shoots and with roots which are generally about 30cm across their total width when spread out. I know it's tempting to plant larger ones bought in containers from garden centres, so you'll have a crop sooner, but in actual fact the others will very soon catch up and then overtake them within a year or so. I know - I've done it! Often many of the ones in garden centres are already badly 'pot bound', with too much root going round and round in a circle in the pot, and at least every other one I see is also planted at the wrong depth in the pot - often with the graft union too close to or even - unbelievably - under the surface of the compost! The graft union is the swollen 'scarred looking' bit above the roots, which should be at least 4in/10cm or more above the roots and surface of the soil/compost, otherwise the variety may eventually root past the graft union - particularly if growing in long grass, and you will lose the dwarfing/fruit producing influence of whichever root stock the variety is grafted onto, and for which you are paying most of your hard earned cash! Again - buying bare root plants avoids this danger.
In Ireland and other similar damp climates like the West Country in England, I think the M26 rootstock is definitely best for most purposes, both M9 and M27 are much weaker, as I've often said before. Both of those were developed in the warmer and far drier East of England, for 'super perfect' growing conditions, and how many of us can provide those, particularly in these times of unpredictable weather caused by erratic climate swings? Most of the books written by fruit 'experts' these days seem to be written by people living in the East of England too! It's one of the things I find really annoying, that these 'experts' rarely, if ever, take account of the fact that our local climates can differ vastly from region to region, or even within individual gardens! In Ireland, even in a small garden I would plant on M26, as it will tolerate a less than perfect soil, will produce very good crops and can be pruned to keep it whatever size you want, even trained into cordons or espaliers - or the MM106 which is just slightly more vigorous and often better for a wetter soil. M26 is fine for most varieties and easily kept within bounds, or trained by pruning. Do make sure that wherever you buy them, they can show you proof of not just the variety, but also the rootstock!! (In my experience - garden centres rarely can - and most look at you as if you've got two heads if you ask them what rootstock the trees are on!) Either that, or buy them mail order from a reputable nursery. I was looking at the Future Forests website recently - they seem to have a good selection of trees on M26 and MM106 and are based near Bantry, Co. Cork. www.futureforests.net I haven't personally got trees from them but they seem to have a good list of trees on M26 & MM106 and they also give their pollination groups - which is important, as to get the best crops they must be compatible - flowering at similar times. I checked out a couple of friends who got trees from them in the past and say they've been reliable. They also sell some Irish Heritage varieties - but the few that I've tried so far have been a bit disappointing flavour-wise. Being an essentially practical person - I want an apple that produces well, keeps well and is as disease-free as possible. Each to his own.
On the subject of pollination - I'm not mad about those so called partner pollinating 'family trees'. In most garden centres where I've seen them - they haven't been pruned properly and the specific branches carrying the individual varieties were not clearly labelled. Or even in some cases actually not labelled at all! Most people find it difficult enough to understand the intricacies of apple pruning at the best of times - but with those family trees it's a nightmare if they're not labelled - as not all varieties have the same habit of growth, so they could quickly become an unproductive, chaotic mess if you're confused and so do nothing at all!
Grafted 'family' trees are very expensive too. Buying two or three feathered maiden/first year whips on M26 would cost about the same or even less and take up exactly the same amount or even less space grown as cordons. The would also eventually be far more productive! Even in a tiny garden you could have quite a few different varieties, spreading the apple season, if you grow them as sloping cordons against a fence.
I received an email some time ago asking me to recommend three apple varieties, an early season for eating off the tree, a mid-season variety and a late keeper. I can only recommend those I've grown myself and therefore know will grow well in our often difficult Irish climate. 'Discovery' is a beautiful late August/Sept-ish ripening apple, with juicy aromatic pinkish flesh, which stays really crisp and good for eating all through September. 'Katy' is another very reliable, huge cropper, deep red and ripening around the same time, but it needs to be eaten almost straight off the tree, as after a couple of weeks of keeping it tastes like nothing, with a bitter skin if it's been picked too long! Apple juice made from a fresh picked combination of the two is a fantastic, beautiful deep pink colour, delicious and freezes well if you have room. It also combines very well with juice of the early cooker 'Grenadier', a heavy cropper, which will pollinate both the other two and also many other varieties. 'Grenadier' is a cooker which cooks to a lovely froth, with a good flavour, but loses it's good acid flavour if kept after mid-October - which is the whole point of 'cookers'! Apples that ripen before the end of Sept. won't keep at their very best for longer than a couple of weeks at most. 'James Grieve' is a late Sept. early Oct ripening dual-purpose cooker/eater, crisp, juicy and a good pollinator for many others also.
You can also take hardwood cuttings of many other fruit bushes now - as soon as the leaves have dropped. Just stick them about 2/3rds int the ground somewhere well-drained and sheltered and leave them alone for a year. By then they will normally have made good roots. Very easy! Prune out old fruited canes of blackberries and loganberries now and tie in the new ones grown this year, to stop them being damaged in winter gales.
DON'T start to winter prune apples until all the leaves have fallen. Then clear up all leaves and any 'mummified' fruits to stop diseases re-infecting and possibly spreading next year. This is much easier to do by just mowing closely under the trees and the clippings can all be composted. Save any younger pruned shoots as they are rich in potash. Burn them when dry and save the ash.
If you've had problems with winter moth caterpillars damaging fruit - put grease/glue bands on the trees NOW! These are available online from The Organic Gardening Catalogue UK - or ask in garden centres.
I really enjoy sharing my original ideas and many years experience of growing and cooking my own organic food with you. It's very satisfying and also most complimentary if others find "inspiration" in my work. But if you do happen to copy it, or repeat it in any way online - I would appreciate it very much if you would mention that it originally came from me. Thank you.